User Tools

Site Tools


instructional_design:discovery_learning

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
instructional_design:discovery_learning [2014/01/06 22:58]
amaricic [Kritike]
instructional_design:discovery_learning [2014/01/06 23:02] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
-======
Učenje otkrivanjem====== +====== Discovery ​Learning ​======
-=====
Općenito
===== +
-Učenje otkrivanjem (Discovery ​learning) je model učenja koji je 1960-ih uveo jedan od osnivača [[hr:​learning_paradigms:​constructivism|konstruktivizma]],​ [[http://​www.psych.nyu.edu/​bruner/​|Jerome Bruner]], ali je usko vezan za rad [[http://​www.ibe.unesco.org/​publications/​ThinkersPdf/​piagete.PDF|Jeana Piageta]] (vidi: [[hr:​learning_theories:​Stage Theory of Cognitive Development|Teorija kognitivnog razvoja]]), [[http://​www.vygotsky-robbins.com/​|Leva Vygotskog]] (vidi: [[hr:​learning_theories:​Social Development Theory|teorija socijalnog razvoja]]), [[http://​www.alexandertechnique.com/​articles/​dewey/​|Johna Deweyja]] i [[http://​www.papert.org/​|Seymoura Paperta]], a kasnije razvijana i od strane drugih istraživača. Po svojoj prirodi, Brunerova teorija se smatra potpuno konstruktivističkom. Prema njemu, učenje otkrivanjem je istraživački usmjeren nastavni pristup gdje učenik gradi **novo znanje iz znanja koje posjeduje od ranije i aktivnog iskustva**. +
-=====
Što je 
učenje otkrivanjem?​
===== +
-Za razliku od klasičnih metoda podučavanja u kojima je učenik većinom pasivan i očekuje se da asimilira znanje koje učitelj prezentira((vidi:​ [[hr:​learning_theories:​Assimilation theory]].)),​ učenje otkrivanjem nudi **pristup usmjeren na učenika**, u kojem on otkriva novo znanje putem **aktivnih**,​ **osobnih iskustava**((Bruner,​ J. S. The art of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 21–32. 1961.)) i konstruira nove koncepte temeljene na postojećem znanju. Takva vrsta učenja je više **usmjerena na proces** učenja, nego na sam sadržaj i informacije. Prema Bruneru,  +
-  * "//​iskustvo samostalnog otkrivanja uči pojedinca usvajanju informacija na način koji te informacije čini dostupnijima za upotrebu pri rješavanju problema.//"​((Bruner,​ J. S. The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31(1), p26. 1961.))+
  
-Drugi važan aspekt učenja otkrivanjem je neuspjeh, koji se smatra važnom sastavnicom učenja do te mjere da učenik koji nije doživio neuspjeh u procesu učenja nije zapravo ništa naučio. 
  
-Kasnije tijekom svoje karijere, Bruner je usvojio više socijalni i politički pogled na učenje i usvajanje jezika pod utjecajem [[hr:​learning_theories:​social development theory|teorije socijalnog razvoja]] [[http://​www.marxists.org/​archive/​vygotsky/​|Leva Vigotskog]].+===== General ====
  
-Glavne karakteristike učenja otkrivanjemprema Bicknell-Holemes i Hoffmanu(([[http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?​article=1029&​context=library_talks&​sei-redir=1#​search=%22Discovery+learning+in+library+instruction%22|Bicknell-HolmesTracy, and Paul Seth HoffmanElicitengage, experience, explorediscovery learning in library instructionReference Services Review 28, no4313-3222000.]])) su: +Discovery learning is a learning model introduced in 1960s by one of the founders on [[learning_paradigms:​constructivism|constructivist theory]], [[http://www.psych.nyu.edu/bruner/|Jerome Bruner]]but closely related to works of [[http://​www.ibe.unesco.org/​publications/​ThinkersPdf/​piagete.PDF|Jean Piaget]] (see: [[learning_theories:​Stage Theory of Cognitive Development]])[[http://www.vygotsky-robbins.com/|Lev Vygotsky]] (see[[learning_theories:​Social Development Theory]]), [[http://​www.alexandertechnique.com/​articles/​dewey/​|John Dewey]] and [[http://​www.papert.org/​|Seymour Papert]] and later further developed by other researchers. Bruner'​s theory is considered to be fully constructivist in nature. Discovery learning according to him is a inquiry-based instructional approach in which the learner builds ​**new knowledge from prior knowledge and active experience**.
-  * **istraživanje i rješavanje problema**, koje potiče učenike da aktivno pristupaju stvaranju, stjecanju i generalizaciji novog znanja, umjesto pasivnog izlaganja predavanjima i vježbama,​ +
-  * **preuzimanje odgovornosti za učenje** u smislu mogućnosti onoga koji uči da izabere vlastitu brzinu učenja, i +
-  * **izgradnja novog znanja** iz postojećeg.+
  
-Karakteristike prema kojima se učenje otkrivanjem razlikuje od klasičnog učenja su(([[http://​teach.valdosta.edu/​are/​Litreviews/​vol1no1/​castronova_litr.pdf|J. Castronova. Discovery learning for the 21st century: what is it and how does it compare to traditional learning in effectiveness in the 21st century. Literature Reviews, Action Research Exchange 1, no. 2, 2002.]])): 
  
-  * aktivno umjesto pasivnog učenja, 
-  * učenje je usmjereno na proces, a ne na sadržaj, 
-  * neuspjeh je važan, 
-  * povratna informacija je neophodna, i 
-  * razumijevanje je dublje. 
  
-=====
Koje 
je 
praktično 
značenje 
učenja otkrivanjem?
===== +===== What is discovery learning? =====
-Brunerovi konstruktivistički principi učenja otkrivanjem tvrde da nastava mora((Huitt,​ W. Constructivism. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University, 2009. Cited by [[https://​sites.google.com/​a/​boisestate.edu/​edteki/​final-synthesis-papers/​constructivism-and-technology-in-the-classroom-1|Uriarte,​ John, and Jen Uriarte. Constructivism and Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University.]])):​+
  
-  * učenicima **osigurati iskustva i kontekst** koji im omogućuje i čini ih voljnim učiti ​(spremnost), +In contrast to classical teaching methods in which the learner is usually passive and expected to assimilate the knowledge presented by the teacher((See for example: [[learning_theories:​Assimilation theory]].)), discovery learning offers a **learner-centered approach** in which the learner discovers new knowledge through **active**, **hand-on experiences**((Bruner, J. S. The art of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 21–32. 1961.)) and construct new concepts based on his existing knowledge. This kind of learning is **oriented on the process** of learning, rather then on its content and informationAccording to Bruner,
-  ​biti strukturirana na **spiralan način** tako da učenik nastavi detaljnije razvijati naučene koncepte+
-  ​biti konstruirana tako da **olakša ekstrapolaciju** koja omogućava onome tko uči da nadiđe dane informacije.+
  
-Uloga učitelja u ovakvom nastavnom procesu može biti ili pružanje učenicima informacija kada postoji potreba za njima (//vođeno otkrivanje – englguided discovery//) ili uopće ne davati informacije ​(//nevođeno otkrivanje – englunguided ​discovery//).+  * "//practice in discovering for oneself teaches one to acquire information in a way that makes that information more readily viable in problem solving.//"((Bruner, J. SThe act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31(1), p261961.))
  
 +Another important aspect of discovery learning is failure, which is viewed as an important element of learning to the extent that learner hasn't really learned anything if he hasn't failed during the learning process. ​
  
-Ovi principi koji nude prijedloge kako bi nastavni proces trebao izgledati uklopljeni su u nekoliko veoma sličnih „arhitektura“ učenja temeljenih na otkrivanju:​ +Later in his career Bruner adopted a more social and political view of learning and language acquisition influenced by [[http://​www.marxists.org/​archive/​vygotsky/​|Lev Vigotsky]]'​s ​[[learning_theories:social development theory]].
-  * [[hr:instructional_design:​Case-Based Learning|Učenje na temelju slučajeva ​]] +
-  * [[hr:instructional_design:​Incidental Learning|Nenamjerno učenje]] +
-  * [[hr:​instructional_design:​Simulation-Based Learning|Učenje simulacijom]] +
-  * [[hr:​instructional_design:​Goal Based Scenarios|Cilju usmjereni scenariji]] +
-  * [[hr:​instructional_design:​Problem-Based Learning|Problemsko učenje]]+
  
-=====Kritike===== +Main attributes of discovery learning, as described by Bicknell-Holmes and Hoffman(([[http://​digitalcommons.unl.edu/​cgi/​viewcontent.cgi?​article=1029&​context=library_talks&​sei-redir=1#search=%22Discovery+learning+in+library+instruction%22|Bicknell-Holmes,​ Tracy, and Paul Seth Hoffman. Elicit, engage, experience, explore: discovery learning in library instruction. Reference Services Review 28, no. 4: 313-322. 2000.]])) are: 
-Učenje otkrivanjem u zadnje vrijeme je predmetom brojnih kritika ​(vidi:[[hr:​learning_paradigms:​constructivism&#​criticisms|kritike konstruktivizma]]), pri čemu sve više istraživanja pokazuje+ 
-  * **neefikasnost**  ​učenja isključivo otkrivanjemposebno za početnikei +  * **exploring and problem solving**, which stimulate learners to actively approach to creation, acquisition and generalization of new knowledge instead of passively being exposed to lectures and practice, 
-  * snažne pozitivne učinke vođene nastave i praktičnih primjerauglavnom isključenih iz učenja putem otkrivanja(([[http://​www.katharinenewman.com/​Research/​Desktop/​amp-59-1-14.pdf|Mayer,​ R. E. Should There Be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning?. American Psychologist 59, no. 1: 14. 2004.]]))(([[http://​www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=1&​ved=0CBoQFjAA&​url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.169.8810%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&​rct=j&​q=Why%20minimal%20guidance%20during%20instruction%20does%20not%20work&​ei=yvSuTaKGCoySOuetze4B&​usg=AFQjCNGIE4wsl4Fg5fVtGlt3UdZOoLrP2A&​cad=rja|Kirschner,​ P. A, J. Sweller, and R. E Clark. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist,​ discovery, problem-based,​ experiential,​ and inquiry-based teaching. Educational psychologist 41, no. 2: 75–86. 2006.))(([[http://​www.cogtech.usc.edu/​publications/​sweller_kirschner_clark_reply_ep07.pdf|Sweller,​ J., P. A Kirschner, and R. E Clark. Why minimally guided teaching techniques do not work: A reply to commentaries. Educational Psychologist 42, no. 2: 115–121. 2007.]]))(([[http://​www.scopus.com/​record/​display.url?​eid=2-s2.0-79951777254&​origin=resultslist&​sort=cp-t&​src=s&​imp=t&​sid=Ug84tfmOFqClrogsKqiEWMQ%3a50&​sot=inw&​sdt=a&​sl=42&​s=AU-ID%28%22Tenenbaum%2c+Harriet+R.%22+35367227500%29&​relpos=3&​relpos=3&​searchTerm=AU-ID%28\|Alfieri,​ Louis, Patricia J. Brooks, Naomi J. Aldrich, and Harriet R. Tenenbaum. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning? Journal of Educational Psychology 103, no. 1: 1-18. February 2011.]]))(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=MImg&​_imagekey=B6VDC-4V6YSYJ-1-1&​_cdi=5979&​_user=3875467&​_pii=S0747563208002161&​_origin=gateway&​_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2009&​_sk=999749997&​view=c&​wchp=dGLbVlW-zSkzS&​md5=c56371507f94d74cb7effdbb3f2aec57&​ie=/​sdarticle.pdf|Schwonke,​ Rolf, Alexander Renkl, Carmen Krieg, Jörg Wittwer, Vincent Aleven, and Ron Salden. The worked-example effect: Not an artefact of lousy control conditions. Computers in Human Behavior 25, no. 2: 258-266. March 2009.]])). ​+  * **taking responsibility for learning** in terms oft he ability of learners to choose their own learning pace, and 
 +  * **building new knowledge** from the existing. 
 + 
 +The characteristics in which discovery learning differs from clasical learning are(([[http://​teach.valdosta.edu/​are/​Litreviews/​vol1no1/​castronova_litr.pdf|J. Castronova. Discovery learning for the 21st century: what is it and how does it compare to traditional learning in effectiveness in the 21st century. Literature Reviews, Action Research Exchange 1, no. 2, 2002.]])):​ 
 + 
 +  * active rather than passive learning, 
 +  * learning is process-oriented rather than content-oriented,​ 
 +  * failure is important,​ 
 +  * feedback is necessary, and 
 +  * understanding is deeper. 
 + 
 + 
 +===== What is  the practical meaning of discovery learning? ​===== 
 + 
 +Bruner’s constructivistic principles of discovery learning claim that instruction must((Huitt, W. Constructivism. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GAValdosta State University, 2009. Cited by [[https://​sites.google.com/​a/​boisestate.edu/​edteki/​final-synthesis-papers/​constructivism-and-technology-in-the-classroom-1|Uriarte,​ John, and Jen Uriarte. Constructivism and Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University.]])):​ 
 + 
 +  * **provide** students with **experiences and contexts** that make them willing and able to learn (readiness),​ 
 +  * be structured in a **spiral manner** so that the student keeps developing learned concepts in more and more details, and 
 +  * be designed to **facilitate extrapolation** that enables student going beyond the information given. 
 + 
 +The role of the teacher in such instructional process can be either to provide students with information when necessary (//guided discovery//​) or not provide them with information at all (//unguided discovery//​). 
 + 
 +These principles offering an idea of what instructional process should look like were implemented in several mostly very similar architectures of discovery-based learning: 
 + 
 +  * [[instructional_design:​Case-Based Learning]] 
 +  * [[instructional_design:​Incidental Learning]] 
 +  * [[instructional_design:​Simulation-Based Learning]] 
 +  * [[instructional_design:​Goal Based Scenarios]] 
 +  * [[instructional_design:​Problem-Based Learning]] 
 +   
 + 
 +===== Criticisms ===== 
 + 
 +Discovery learning has been subjected to many criticisms lately (see: [[learning_paradigms:​constructivism&#​criticisms|criticisms of constructivism]]), with more and more studies showing: 
 + 
 +  * **inefficiency** of pure discovery learningespecially for novice learnersand 
 +  * strong positive effects of guided instruction and worked examplesmostly excluded from learning by discovery(([[http://​www.katharinenewman.com/​Research/​Desktop/​amp-59-1-14.pdf|Mayer,​ R. E. Should There Be a Three-Strikes Rule Against Pure Discovery Learning?. American Psychologist 59, no. 1: 14. 2004.]]))(([[http://​www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=1&​ved=0CBoQFjAA&​url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.169.8810%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&​rct=j&​q=Why%20minimal%20guidance%20during%20instruction%20does%20not%20work&​ei=yvSuTaKGCoySOuetze4B&​usg=AFQjCNGIE4wsl4Fg5fVtGlt3UdZOoLrP2A&​cad=rja|Kirschner,​ P. A, J. Sweller, and R. E Clark. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist,​ discovery, problem-based,​ experiential,​ and inquiry-based teaching. Educational psychologist 41, no. 2: 75–86. 2006.))(([[http://​www.cogtech.usc.edu/​publications/​sweller_kirschner_clark_reply_ep07.pdf|Sweller,​ J., P. A Kirschner, and R. E Clark. Why minimally guided teaching techniques do not work: A reply to commentaries. Educational Psychologist 42, no. 2: 115–121. 2007.]]))(([[http://​www.scopus.com/​record/​display.url?​eid=2-s2.0-79951777254&​origin=resultslist&​sort=cp-t&​src=s&​imp=t&​sid=Ug84tfmOFqClrogsKqiEWMQ%3a50&​sot=inw&​sdt=a&​sl=42&​s=AU-ID%28%22Tenenbaum%2c+Harriet+R.%22+35367227500%29&​relpos=3&​relpos=3&​searchTerm=AU-ID%28\|Alfieri,​ Louis, Patricia J. Brooks, Naomi J. Aldrich, and Harriet R. Tenenbaum. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning? Journal of Educational Psychology 103, no. 1: 1-18. February 2011.]]))(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=MImg&​_imagekey=B6VDC-4V6YSYJ-1-1&​_cdi=5979&​_user=3875467&​_pii=S0747563208002161&​_origin=gateway&​_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2009&​_sk=999749997&​view=c&​wchp=dGLbVlW-zSkzS&​md5=c56371507f94d74cb7effdbb3f2aec57&​ie=/​sdarticle.pdf|Schwonke,​ Rolf, Alexander Renkl, Carmen Krieg, Jörg Wittwer, Vincent Aleven, and Ron Salden. The worked-example effect: Not an artefact of lousy control conditions. Computers in Human Behavior 25, no. 2: 258-266. March 2009.]])). 
 + 
 +  * "//In summary, learners encounter problems with all processes characteristic of discovery learning such as stating hypotheses, designing experiments,​ interpreting data and regulating the learning process (monitoring and planning).//"​(([[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/​doi/​10.1046/​j.1365-2729.1998.143060.x/​pdf|de Jong, T., W. R. van Joolingen, J. Swaak, K. Veermans, R. Limbach, S. King, and D. Gureghian. Self-directed learning in simulation-based discovery environments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 14, no. 3: 235-246. September 1998.]])) 
 + 
 +Still, this debate is ongoing as various researchers still find that guided discovery can result in better learning than explicit instruction(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=ArticleURL&​_udi=B6WYD-527MP37-8&​_user=3875467&​_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2011&​_alid=1742826362&​_rdoc=1&​_fmt=high&​_orig=search&​_origin=search&​_zone=rslt_list_item&​_cdi=7184&​_sort=r&​_st=13&​_docanchor=&​view=c&​_ct=4194&​_acct=C000050661&​_version=1&​_urlVersion=0&​_userid=3875467&​md5=81152b81dd692fdedbfe57a59a8c8ff0&​searchtype=a|Alfieri,​ Louis, Patricia J. Brooks, Naomi J. Aldrich, and Harriet R. Tenenbaum. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning? Journal of Educational Psychology 103, no. 1: 1-18. February 2011.]])). 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Keywords and most important names =====
  
-  * "//​Zaključno,​ učenici se susreću s problemima u svim procesima karakterističnima za učenje otkrivanjem kao što su postavljanje hipoteza, dizajniranje eksperimentalnog nacrta, interpretacija podataka i regulacija procesa učenja (nadgledanje i planiranje). //"​(([[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/​doi/​10.1046/​j.1365-2729.1998.143060.x/​pdf|de Jong, T., W. R. van Joolingen, J. Swaak, K. Veermans, R. Limbach, S. King, and D. Gureghian. Self-directed learning in simulation-based discovery environments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 14, no. 3: 235-246. September 1998.]])) 
-Ipak, ova rasprava i dalje traje jer razni istraživači još uvijek smatraju da vođeno otkrivanje može rezultirati boljim učenjem nego eksplicitna nastava (([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=ArticleURL&​_udi=B6WYD-527MP37-8&​_user=3875467&​_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2011&​_alid=1742826362&​_rdoc=1&​_fmt=high&​_orig=search&​_origin=search&​_zone=rslt_list_item&​_cdi=7184&​_sort=r&​_st=13&​_docanchor=&​view=c&​_ct=4194&​_acct=C000050661&​_version=1&​_urlVersion=0&​_userid=3875467&​md5=81152b81dd692fdedbfe57a59a8c8ff0&​searchtype=a|Alfieri,​ Louis, Patricia J. Brooks, Naomi J. Aldrich, and Harriet R. Tenenbaum. Does Discovery-Based Instruction Enhance Learning? Journal of Educational Psychology 103, no. 1: 1-18. February 2011.]])). 
-=====
Ključne 
riječi 
i 
najvažnija
 imena
===== 
   * [[http://​www.psych.nyu.edu/​bruner/​|Jerome Bruner]]   * [[http://​www.psych.nyu.edu/​bruner/​|Jerome Bruner]]
-  * **učenje otkrivanjem**, **učenje temeljeno na otkrivanju**, **vođeno otkrivanje**, **istraživanje** +  * **discovery learning**, **discovery-based learning**, **guided discovery**, **exploring** 
-=====
Literatura
=====+ 
 +===== Bibliography ​===== 
 [[http://​digitalcommons.unl.edu/​cgi/​viewcontent.cgi?​article=1029&​context=library_talks&​sei-redir=1#​search=%22Discovery+learning+in+library+instruction%22|Bicknell-Holmes,​ Tracy, and Paul Seth Hoffman. Elicit, engage, experience, explore: discovery learning in library instruction. Reference Services Review 28, no. 4: 313-322. 2000.]] [[http://​digitalcommons.unl.edu/​cgi/​viewcontent.cgi?​article=1029&​context=library_talks&​sei-redir=1#​search=%22Discovery+learning+in+library+instruction%22|Bicknell-Holmes,​ Tracy, and Paul Seth Hoffman. Elicit, engage, experience, explore: discovery learning in library instruction. Reference Services Review 28, no. 4: 313-322. 2000.]]
  
Line 60: Line 80:
 [[http://​teach.valdosta.edu/​are/​Litreviews/​vol1no1/​castronova_litr.pdf|Castronova,​ J. Discovery learning for the 21st century: what is it and how does it compare to traditional learning in effectiveness in the 21st century. Literature Reviews, Action Research Exchange (ARE 1, no. 2). 2002.]] [[http://​teach.valdosta.edu/​are/​Litreviews/​vol1no1/​castronova_litr.pdf|Castronova,​ J. Discovery learning for the 21st century: what is it and how does it compare to traditional learning in effectiveness in the 21st century. Literature Reviews, Action Research Exchange (ARE 1, no. 2). 2002.]]
  
-===== Pročitaj više =====+===== Read more =====
  
 [[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=F_d96D9FmbUC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=towards+a+theory+of+instruction&​hl=hr&​ei=L6nCTdT6HIeEOq_w1Z0I&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Bruner,​ J. Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1966.]] [[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=F_d96D9FmbUC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=towards+a+theory+of+instruction&​hl=hr&​ei=L6nCTdT6HIeEOq_w1Z0I&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Bruner,​ J. Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1966.]]
Line 69: Line 89:
  
 Bruner, J. The Relevance of Education. Norton, 1971. Bruner, J. The Relevance of Education. Norton, 1971.
- 
-==== Recentna literatura ==== 
- 
-[[http://​files.eric.ed.gov/​fulltext/​EJ971752.pdf|Clark,​ R. E., Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J. (2012). Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction.//​American Educator 36//​(1):​6-11]] 
- 
-[[http://​files.eric.ed.gov/​fulltext/​ED521532.pdf|McDonald,​ B. (2011). Self Assessment and Discovery Learning. Online Submission.]] 
- 
-[[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.108.5673&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Joolingen,​ W. (1999). Cognitive Tools for Discovery Learning. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 10, 385-397.]] 
instructional_design/discovery_learning.txt · Last modified: 2014/01/06 23:02 (external edit)