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learning_paradigms:behaviorism [2014/01/17 16:29]
jbosak
learning_paradigms:behaviorism [2015/05/03 12:01] (current)
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 ====== Behaviorism ====== ====== Behaviorism ======
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 ===== About behaviorism ===== ===== About behaviorism =====
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   * "//​Psychology,​ as the behaviorist views it, is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science which needs introspection as little as do the sciences of chemistry and physics. It is granted that the behavior of animals can be investigated without appeal to consciousness.//"​(([[http://​psychclassics.yorku.ca/​Watson/​views.htm|Watson,​ John B. Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Psychological Review 20: 158-177. 1913.]]))   * "//​Psychology,​ as the behaviorist views it, is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science which needs introspection as little as do the sciences of chemistry and physics. It is granted that the behavior of animals can be investigated without appeal to consciousness.//"​(([[http://​psychclassics.yorku.ca/​Watson/​views.htm|Watson,​ John B. Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Psychological Review 20: 158-177. 1913.]]))
  
-[[http://​edtechundergroundrevolution.blogspot.com/​2010/​09/​behaviorism-in-practice.html|{{ ​ :​images:​behaviorism.jpg?​130x140|Behaviorism. Image borrowed from: edtechundergroundrevolution.blogspot.com. Click on the picture to follow the link.  ​}}]]+[[http://​edtechundergroundrevolution.blogspot.com/​2010/​09/​behaviorism-in-practice.html|{{ ​ :​images:​behaviorism.jpg?​nolink&130x140}}]]
  
-Behaviorists saw the mind as a "black box" and did not attempt to analyze its inner processes like thoughts, feelings, or motivation. Instead, they saw learning as a visible change in one's behavior which, unlike mind processes, can be measured. From behaviorist perspective,​ a learner starts off as a clear state and simply responds to environmental stimuli. Those responses can be shaped through positive and negative **reinforcement** (usually a reward for desired and a punishment for undesired behavior), increasing or decreasing the probability of repeating the same behavior. Forming **stimulus-response** (S-R) associations which result in observable behavior is for behaviorism the most significant form of learning. ​+Behaviorists saw the mind as a "black box" and did not attempt to analyze its inner processes like thoughts, feelings, or motivation. Instead, they saw learning as a visible change in one's behavior which, unlike mind processes, can be measured. From behaviorist perspective,​ a learner starts off as a clear state and simply responds to environmental stimuli. Those responses can be shaped through positive and negative **reinforcement** ​ (usually a reward for desired and a punishment for undesired behavior), increasing or decreasing the probability of repeating the same behavior. Forming **stimulus-response** ​ (S-R) associations which result in observable behavior is for behaviorism the most significant form of learning.
  
 This learning paradigm can roughly be divided in two phases: This learning paradigm can roughly be divided in two phases:
  
-  * **behaviorism** (1910 - 1930), and +  * **behaviorism** ​ (1910 - 1930), and 
-  * **neobehaviorism** (1930 - 1955). +  * **neobehaviorism** ​ (1930 - 1955). 
- +Neobehaviorism outgrew classical behaviorism by attempts to formalize the laws of behavior (sometimes in forms of mathematical expressions) and beliefs that learning can also occur indirectly through observing. Neobehaviorists are sometimes considered a transitional group that shifted dominant learning perspective toward [[:learning_paradigms:​cognitivism|cognitivism]].
-Neobehaviorism outgrew classical behaviorism by attempts to formalize the laws of behavior (sometimes in forms of mathematical expressions) and beliefs that learning can also occur indirectly through observing. Neobehaviorists are sometimes considered a transitional group that shifted dominant learning perspective toward [[learning_paradigms:​cognitivism]].+
  
 ===== Learning theories: ===== ===== Learning theories: =====
  
-  * [[learning_theories:​Connectionism]] - [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​thorndike.htm|Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949)]] +  * [[:learning_theories:​connectionism|Connectionism]] - [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​thorndike.htm|Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949)]] 
-  * [[learning_theories:​Clasicall Conditioning]] - [[http://www.ivanpavlov.com/|Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936)]] +  * [[:learning_theories:​clasicall_conditioning|Clasicall Conditioning]] - [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov|Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936)]] 
-  * [[learning_theories:​Contiguity Theory and One Trial Learning]] [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​guthrie.htm|Edwin Guthrie (1886 - 1959)]]  +  * [[:learning_theories:​contiguity_theory_and_one_trial_learning|Contiguity Theory and One Trial Learning]] [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​guthrie.htm|Edwin Guthrie (1886 - 1959)]] 
-  * [[learning_theories:​Sign Learning]] - [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​tolman.htm|Edward Tolman (1886 - 1959)]] +  * [[:learning_theories:​sign_learning|Sign Learning]] - [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​tolman.htm|Edward Tolman (1886 - 1959)]] 
-  * [[learning_theories:​Drive Reduction Theory]] - [[http://​www.newworldencyclopedia.org/​entry/​Clark_L._Hull|Clark Hull (1884 – 1952)]] +  * [[:learning_theories:​drive_reduction_theory|Drive Reduction Theory]] - [[http://​www.newworldencyclopedia.org/​entry/​Clark_L._Hull|Clark Hull (1884 – 1952)]] 
-  * [[learning_theories:​Operant Conditioning]] - [[http://​www.bfskinner.org/​BFSkinner/​AboutSkinner.html|Burrhus Skinner (1904  - 1990)]] +  * [[:learning_theories:​operant_conditioning|Operant Conditioning]] - [[http://​www.bfskinner.org/​BFSkinner/​AboutSkinner.html|Burrhus Skinner (1904 - 1990)]] 
-  * [[learning_theories:​Stimulus Sampling Theory ]] [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​William_Kaye_Estes|William Estes (1919 - )]]+  * [[:learning_theories:​stimulus_sampling_theory|Stimulus Sampling Theory]] [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​William_Kaye_Estes|William Estes (1919 - )]]
  
 Among learning theories listed above, connectionism presents an introduction to behaviorist learning and setting its frames followed by true behaviorist learning perspectives of classical and operand conditioning. Sign learning appeared as first neobehaviorist theory, followed by drive reduction theory, which also incorporated idea of describing learning with intervening variables. Among learning theories listed above, connectionism presents an introduction to behaviorist learning and setting its frames followed by true behaviorist learning perspectives of classical and operand conditioning. Sign learning appeared as first neobehaviorist theory, followed by drive reduction theory, which also incorporated idea of describing learning with intervening variables.
  
-Basic ideas and approximate historical introduction time for each of this theories can be found in this [[learning_paradigms:​behaviorism_timeline|chronological overview]]. +Basic ideas and approximate historical introduction time for each of this theories can be found in this [[:learning_paradigms:​behaviorism_timeline|chronological overview]].
  
 ===== Instructional design theories and models ===== ===== Instructional design theories and models =====
  
-  * [[learning_theories:​The Keller Plan]] - [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Fred_S._Keller|Fred Keller (1899 - 1996)]] +  * [[:learning_theories:​the_keller_plan|The Keller Plan]] - [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Fred_S._Keller|Fred Keller (1899 - 1996)]] 
-  * [[instructional_design:​Programmed Instruction]] - [[http://​www.bfskinner.org/​BFSkinner/​AboutSkinner.html|Burrhus Skinner (1904  - 1990)]]+  * [[:instructional_design:​programmed_instruction|Programmed Instruction]] - [[http://​www.bfskinner.org/​BFSkinner/​AboutSkinner.html|Burrhus Skinner (1904 - 1990)]] 
 ===== Criticisms ===== ===== Criticisms =====
  
-Behaviorism today mostly **lost its influence** and let cognitivism take its place as the dominant learning paradigm. Critics of behaviorist learning usually argue that behaviorism:​+Behaviorism today mostly **lost its influence** ​ and let cognitivism take its place as the dominant learning paradigm. Critics of behaviorist learning usually argue that behaviorism:​
  
-  * **does not explain all kinds o learning** since it ignores inner mind activities,​ +  * **does not explain all kinds o learning** ​ since it ignores inner mind activities,​ 
-  * offers a very limited view on learning since it **ignores internal factors** such as emotions or motivation,+  * offers a very limited view on learning since it **ignores internal factors** ​ such as emotions or motivation,
   * ignores fact that learning depends on learner'​s inner subjective representation of environment and learning history.   * ignores fact that learning depends on learner'​s inner subjective representation of environment and learning history.
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 ===== Bibliography ===== ===== Bibliography =====
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 [[http://​webspace.ship.edu/​cgboer/​beh.html|George Boeree. Behaviorism.]] Preuzeto 23. lipnja, 2011. [[http://​webspace.ship.edu/​cgboer/​beh.html|George Boeree. Behaviorism.]] Preuzeto 23. lipnja, 2011.
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 ===== Read more ===== ===== Read more =====
  
-[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=fdJqAAAAMAAJ&​dq=Reflexes%20of%20the%20brain%20inauthor%3A%22Ivan%20Mikha%C4%ADlovich%20Sechenov%22&​source=gbs_similarbooks|Sechenov,​ Ivan Mikhaĭlovich. Reflexes of the brain. M.I.T. Press, 1965.]]+[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=fdJqAAAAMAAJ&​dq=Reflexes ​of the brain inauthor:"​Ivan Mikhaĭlovich Sechenov"​&​source=gbs_similarbooks|Sechenov,​ Ivan Mikhaĭlovich. Reflexes of the brain. M.I.T. Press, 1965.]]
  
 [[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=XqZEfU22934C&​printsec=frontcover#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Vladimir Mikhaĭlovich Bekhterev, General principles of human reflexology. Ayer Publishing, 1932.]] [[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=XqZEfU22934C&​printsec=frontcover#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Vladimir Mikhaĭlovich Bekhterev, General principles of human reflexology. Ayer Publishing, 1932.]]
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 [[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=B2Fkuw76DxoC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=Baum,​+William+M.+Understanding+behaviorism:​+science,​+behavior,​+and+culture&​hl=hr&​ei=7KxrTavrK8iX8QOTwujxBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Baum,​ William M. Understanding behaviorism:​ science, behavior, and culture. Wiley-Blackwell,​ 1994.]] [[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=B2Fkuw76DxoC&​printsec=frontcover&​dq=Baum,​+William+M.+Understanding+behaviorism:​+science,​+behavior,​+and+culture&​hl=hr&​ei=7KxrTavrK8iX8QOTwujxBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Baum,​ William M. Understanding behaviorism:​ science, behavior, and culture. Wiley-Blackwell,​ 1994.]]
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learning_paradigms/behaviorism.txt · Last modified: 2015/05/03 12:01 (external edit)