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learning_paradigms:cognitivism [2013/12/08 17:56]
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learning_paradigms:cognitivism [2013/12/08 18:07] (current)
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-====== ​ ​Kognitivizam  ​======+====== ​Cognitivism ​======
  
  
-=====  Uvod (o kognitivizmu)  ​=====+===== About cognitivism ​=====
  
-Jedna od prvih kritika ​[[hr:learning_paradigms:​behaviorism|biheviorističkom pristupu učenja]], upućena početkom 20.-tog stoljeća, dolazi od strane ​[[hr:learning_theories:​gestalt_psychology|gestaltista]] i odnosi se usmjerenost biheviorista isključivo na vidljivo ponašanjeUpravo je [[:hr:​glossary#​gestalt|gestaltistički]] pogled na učenje utjecao na **nove pristupe**, šire od biheviorizma,​ koji su postavili ​**temeljne principe** onoga što danas nazivamo ​**[[:hr:​glossary#​cognition|kognitivnim]] teorijama učenja**. Tako je 1960-ih biheviorizam,​ do tad dominantna ​[[:hr:​learning_paradigms|paradigma učenja]], polako zamijenjen kognitivizmom+One of the first criticisms of [[learning_paradigms:​behaviorism|behaviorist learning approach]] came from [[learning_theories:​gestalt_psychology|gestalt psychologists]] during the first decades of the 20th century and was related to behaviorist dependencies exclusively on overt behaviorIt was the [[:​glossary#​gestalt|gestalt]] views on learning that influenced ​**new approaches** extending beyond behaviorism and setting the **basic principles** of what is today known as **[[:​glossary#​cognition|cognitive]] learning theories**. In the 1960s behaviorism was as a dominant ​[[:​learning_paradigms|learning paradigm]] slowly replaced by cognitivism.
  
-[[:hr:​glossary#​cognition|Kognitivni]] pristup učenjuza razliku od biheviorističkog,+[[:​glossary#​cognition|Cognitive]] approach to learningunlike behavioral,
  
-  * učenje vidi kao **aktivno** usvajanje novog znanja i razvoj adekvatnih **kognitivnih** **(mental)** konstrukcija+  * sees learning as the **active** acquisition of new knowledge and developing adequate ​**mental** ​constructions
-  *  ​**učenika** (osobu koja uči) postavlja kao **lokus kontrole** **(locus of control)**ne kao pasivnog sudionika u procesu učenja+  * sets the **learner** as the **locus of control** ​and not just as passive participant in the process of learning
-  * pokušava otvoriti ​"crnu kutiju"​ **(black box)** uma, **objasniti** kompleksne ​** kognitivne procese** i njegovu strukturu ​**(arhitecture)**, +  * attempts to open the "black box" of his mind and **explain** complex ​**cognitive processes** and architecture
-  * učenju se okreće u vidu **uvida** **(insight)**, **obrade informacija** **(information processing)**, **pamćenja** **(memory)** **percepcije**, +  * addresses learning with regard to **insight**,​ **information processing**,​ **memory****perception**, 
-  * naglašava ulogu **postojećeg znanja** **(prior knowledge)** i iskustva u ishodima učenjate +  * emphasizes the role of **prior knowledge** ​and experiences for learning outcomesand 
-  * učenika vidi kao ** obrađivača i organizatora informacija**  ​**(organized information processor)**.+  * sees learner as an **organized information processor**.
  
  
-=====  ​Ljudsko pamćenje  ​===== +===== Human memory ​===== 
  
-Ako se ulazi u analizu kognitivne strukture **(human cognitive architecture)**tada je nužno u obzir uzeti i svojstva ljudskog sustava pamćenja **(human memory system)**. **Pamćenje** **(Memory)** je često definirano kao "//sposobnost organizma da pohranizadrži i dozove informacije i iskustva//"​(([[ http://hr.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Pam%C4%87enje|Wikipedia: ​Pamćenje.]] Pribavljeno ​21. ožujka, 2011.)). ​S obzirom da ima ključnu ulogu u stjecanju **(acquisition)** i zadržavanju **(retention)** znanja **(knowledge)**objektom je mnogih istraživanja i esencijalni je dio brojnih kognitivističkih teorija učenja **(cognitivist learning theories)**.+If human cognitive architecture ​is to be analyzedthen the role and properties of human memory system ​should also be accounted for. **Memory** ​is often defined as "//an organism'​s ability to storeretain, and recall information and experiences//"​(([[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Memory|Wikipedia: ​Memory.]] Retrieved March 21, 2011.)). ​Since it has a crucial role in acquisition ​and retention ​of knowledge, ​it was the subject of many researches and an essential part of many cognitivist learning theories.
  
-  * [[hr:memory_models:​A Brief History of Human Memory Systems|Kratka povijest istraživanja sustava ljudskog pamćenja]] **(Human Memory Systems Research)** +  * [[memory_models:​A Brief History of Human Memory Systems|A Brief History of Human Memory Systems Research]] 
-  * [[hr:memory_models:​Human Working Memory|Ljudsko radno pamćenje]] **(Human Working Memory)**+  * [[memory_models:​Human Working Memory]]
  
-=====  ​Teorije učenja =====+===== Learning theories: =====
  
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Gestalt Psychology|Gestalt psihologija]] **(Gestalt Psychology)** ​- [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Max_Wertheimer|Max Wertheimer (1880 – 1943)]] +  * [[learning_theories:​Gestalt Psychology]] - [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Max_Wertheimer|Max Wertheimer (1880 – 1943)]] 
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Assimilation Theory|Teorija asimilacije]] **(Assimilation Theory)** ​- [[http://​www.davidausubel.org/​|David ​ Ausubel (1918 - 2008)]] +  * [[learning_theories:​Assimilation Theory]] - [[http://​www.davidausubel.org/​|David ​ Ausubel (1918 - 2008)]] 
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Social Cognitive Learning Theory|Socio-kognitivina teorija učenja]] **(Social Cognitive Learning Theory)** ​- [[http://hr.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Albert_Bandura|Albert Bandura (1925 - )]] +  * [[learning_theories:​Social Cognitive Learning Theory]] - [[http://en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Albert_Bandura|Albert Bandura (1925 - )]] 
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Conditions of Learning|Uvjeti učenja]] **(Conditions of Learning)** ​- [[http://​www.ibstpi.org/​Products/​pdf/​appendix_A-C.pdf|Robert Gagné (1916 - 2002)]] +  * [[learning_theories:​Conditions of Learning]] - [[http://​www.ibstpi.org/​Products/​pdf/​appendix_A-C.pdf|Robert Gagné (1916 - 2002)]] 
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Schema Theory|Teorija shema]] **(Schema Theory)** ​- [[http://​www.education.com/​reference/​article/​anderson-richard-chase-1934-/​|Richard Anderson (1934 - )]]  +  * [[learning_theories:​Schema Theory]] - [[http://​www.education.com/​reference/​article/​anderson-richard-chase-1934-/​|Richard Anderson (1934 - )]]  
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Script Theory|Teorija scenarija]] **(Script Theory)** ​- [[http://​www.rogerschank.com/​|Roger Schank]] +  * [[learning_theories:​Script Theory]] - [[http://​www.rogerschank.com/​|Roger Schank]] 
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Dual Coding Theory|Teorija dvojnog kodiranja]] **(Dual Coding Theory)** ​- [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Allan_Paivio|Allan Pavio (1925 - )]] +  * [[learning_theories:​Dual Coding Theory]] - [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Allan_Paivio|Allan Pavio (1925 - )]] 
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Cognitive Load Theory|Teorija kognitivnog opterećenja]] (CLT) **(Cognitive Load Theory)** ​- [[http://​education.arts.unsw.edu.au/​staff/​john-sweller-726.html|John Sweller]]  +  * [[learning_theories:​Cognitive Load Theory]] (CLT) - [[http://​education.arts.unsw.edu.au/​staff/​john-sweller-726.html|John Sweller]]  
-  * [[hr:learning_theories:​Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning|Kognitivna teorija multimedijalnog učenja]] (CTML) ​**(Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning)** ​- [[http://​www.psych.ucsb.edu/​people/​faculty/​mayer/​index.php|Richard Mayer]]+  * [[learning_theories:​Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning]] (CTML) - [[http://​www.psych.ucsb.edu/​people/​faculty/​mayer/​index.php|Richard Mayer]]
  
  
-===== Teorije i modeli instrukcionalnog dizajna: **(Instructional design theories and learning models)**=====+===== Instructional design theories and learning models=====
  
-  *[[hr:instructional_design:​Cone of Experience|Stožac iskustva]] **(Cone of Experience)**- [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Edgar_Dale|Edgar Dale (1900 – 1985)]] +  *[[instructional_design:​Cone of Experience]] - [[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Edgar_Dale|Edgar Dale (1900 – 1985)]] 
-  *[[hr:instructional_design:​Elaboration Theory|Teorija elaboracije]] **(Elaboration Theory)**- [[http://​www.indiana.edu/​~syschang/​decatur/​bios/​biographies.html|Charles Reigeluth]] +  *[[instructional_design:​Elaboration Theory]] - [[http://​www.indiana.edu/​~syschang/​decatur/​bios/​biographies.html|Charles Reigeluth]] 
-  *[[hr:instructional_design:​Concept Mapping|Konceptualno mapiranje]] **(Concept Mapping)**- [[http://​www.ihmc.us/​groups/​jnovak/​|Joseph Novak]] +  *[[instructional_design:​Concept Mapping]] - [[http://​www.ihmc.us/​groups/​jnovak/​|Joseph Novak]] 
-  *[[hr:instructional_design:​Component Display Theory|Komponentni dizajn]] **(Component Display Theory)**- [[http://​mdavidmerrill.com/​index.htm|Dave Merrill]] +  *[[instructional_design:​Component Display Theory]] - [[http://​mdavidmerrill.com/​index.htm|Dave Merrill]] 
-  *[[hr:instructional_design:​structural_learning|Strukturalna teorija učenja]] **(Structural Learning)** ​- [[http://​www.scandura.com/​|Joseph Scandura]] +  *[[instructional_design:​structural_learning|Structural Learning Theory]] - [[http://​www.scandura.com/​|Joseph Scandura]] 
-  *[[hr:research_results:​Principles and effects|Principi i efekti]] CLT-a i CTML-a - (razni istraživači)+  *[[research_results:​Principles and effects]] ​of CLT and CTML - (various researchers)
  
-=====  Kritike ​ ===== 
  
-Od početka njegovog brzog razvoja tijekom 1960.-ih kognitivizmu su upućene brojne kritike, osporavajući pretpostavku da se **kognitivni procesi mogu usporediti sa modelom obrade informacija** **(mental functions can be compared to an information processing model)**. Neki autori, poput Johna Searlea ili Rogera Penrosea tvrde da obrada podatka **(computation)**,​ s obzirom na urođena ograničenja,​ nikad ne može postići kompleksnost i mogućnosti ljudskih kognitivnih procesa **(mental functions)**,​ te da stoga ne može biti uspješna u njihovom opisivanju. Tipični primjeru su: +===== Criticisms =====
-  * **[[http://​www.miskatonic.org/​godel.html|Gödelovi teoremi nepotpunosti]]** **(Gödel'​s incompleteness theorems)** koji tvrde da "//će unutar svake grane matematike uvijek postojati neke propozicije koje ne mogu biti dokazane točnima ili pogrešnima putem pravila i aksioma… unutar te grane matematike. Svaku razumnu tvrdnju o brojevima je moguće dokazati izlaskom izvan sistema, kako bi se došlo do novih pravila i aksioma, ali ovim činom samo stvaramo veći sistem sa vlastitim nedokazivim tvrdnjama.//"​(([[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=aNoEAAAAYAAJ|Jones,​ Judy, and William Wilson. An incomplete education. Ballantine Books, 1987.]])). Pojednostavljeno,​ računala, s obzirom da su određena ograničenim setom aksioma, nikad neće biti sposobna za kogniciju poput ljudske. Model obrade informacija **(information-processing model)**, stoga ima ograničenu primjenu u razumijevanju ljudske kognicije. [[http://​kgs.logic.at/​index.php?​id=23|Kurt Gödel]] svoja dva teorema nepotpunosti predstavlja,​ 1931. +
-  * **[[http://​www.scientificamerican.com/​article.cfm?​id=why-is-turings-halting-pr|Turingov problem zaustavljanja]]** **(Turing'​s halting problem)** koji tvrdi da je za dani opis programa nemoguće odlučiti zaustavlja li se program ili se nastavlja izvršavati u nedogled za bilo koji ulaz. Ovaj teorem, koji [[http://​www.alanturing.net/​|Alan Turing]] dokazuje 1936, pokazuje kako neke stvari po svojoj prirodi nisu računljive.+
  
-Tijekom 1970-ih, [[hr:learning_paradigms:humanism|humanizam]] se kroz **holistički pristup** **(holistic approach)**, vjeru u snagu pojedinca i pogled na **učenje putem ispunjenja njegovih potencijala**, razvija kao oponent oboje biheviorizmu i kognitivizmu+Since  the beginning of its intensive development during the 1960s various critics of cognitivism have emergedchallenging its assumption that **mental functions can be compared to an information processing model**. Some authors like John Searle ​ or Roger Penrose claim that computation,​ due to its inherent limitations,​ can never achieve the complexity and possibilities of human mental functions and therefore cannot be successfully used to describe them. Common examples for this are: 
-===== Literatura ​=====+ 
 +  * **[[http://​www.miskatonic.org/​godel.html|Gödel'​s incompleteness theorems]]** which claim that "//​within any given branch of mathematics,​ there would always be some propositions that couldn'​t be proven either true or false using the rules and axioms... of that mathematical branch itself. You might be able to prove every conceivable statement about numbers within a system by going outside the system in order to come up with new rules and axioms, but by doing so you'll only create a larger system with its own unprovable statements.//"​(([[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=aNoEAAAAYAAJ|Jones, Judy, and William Wilson. An incomplete education. Ballantine Books, 1987.]])). Oversimplified,​ this means computers will never be capable of human-like cognition since they are limited to a limited set of axioms. The information-processing model should therefore have a limited application in case of humans. [[http://​kgs.logic.at/​index.php?​id=23|Kurt Gödel]] proved his two theorems of incompleteness in 1931. 
 +  ​* **[[http://​www.scientificamerican.com/​article.cfm?​id=why-is-turings-halting-pr|Turing'​s halting problem]]** which claims that given a description of a program, it is impossible to decide whether the program finishes running or continues to run forever for any given program input. This theorem proven by [[http://​www.alanturing.net/​|Alan Turing]] in 1936 shows how some things are naturally non-computable. 
 + 
 +During the 1970s [[learning_paradigms:​humanism]] evolved as an opposing view to both behaviorism and cognitivism beginning with the **holistic approach**, ​belief in the power of an individual and view **learning as a way of fulfilling his potentials**.  
 +===== Bibliography ​=====
  
 [[http://​arrow.dit.ie/​cgi/​viewcontent.cgi?​article=1003&​context=engscheleart|Ashworth,​ Frank et al. : Learning Theories and Higher Education. Level 3, Issue 2, June 2004.]] [[http://​arrow.dit.ie/​cgi/​viewcontent.cgi?​article=1003&​context=engscheleart|Ashworth,​ Frank et al. : Learning Theories and Higher Education. Level 3, Issue 2, June 2004.]]
  
-[[http://​www.learning-theories.com/​cognitivism.html|Cognitivism at Learning Theories.]] ​Pribavljeno ​21. veljače, 2011.+[[http://​www.learning-theories.com/​cognitivism.html|Cognitivism at Learning Theories.]] ​Retrieved February ​21, 2011.
  
-[[http://​classweb.gmu.edu/​ndabbagh/​Resources/​IDKB/​models_theories.htm|Dabbagh,​ N. The Instructional Design Knowledge Base. George Mason University, Instructional Technology Program.]] ​Pribavljeno ​8. ožujka, 2011.+[[http://​classweb.gmu.edu/​ndabbagh/​Resources/​IDKB/​models_theories.htm|Dabbagh,​ N. The Instructional Design Knowledge Base. George Mason University, Instructional Technology Program.]] ​Retrieved March 8, 2011.
  
  
  
-===== Dodatna literatura ​=====+===== Read more =====
  
 [[http://​www.google.com/​books?​hl=hr&​lr=&​id=nbBjFvXL7BMC&​oi=fnd&​pg=PR7&​dq=After+Cognitivism:​+A+Reassessment+of+Cognitive+Science+and+Philosophy&​ots=NfM4_aQlvU&​sig=vLk7QZe2VFKLSHf0rsivSfTqoTE#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Leidlmair,​ Karl. After Cognitivism:​ A Reassessment of Cognitive Science and Philosophy. Springer, 2009.]] [[http://​www.google.com/​books?​hl=hr&​lr=&​id=nbBjFvXL7BMC&​oi=fnd&​pg=PR7&​dq=After+Cognitivism:​+A+Reassessment+of+Cognitive+Science+and+Philosophy&​ots=NfM4_aQlvU&​sig=vLk7QZe2VFKLSHf0rsivSfTqoTE#​v=onepage&​q&​f=false|Leidlmair,​ Karl. After Cognitivism:​ A Reassessment of Cognitive Science and Philosophy. Springer, 2009.]]
learning_paradigms/cognitivism.txt · Last modified: 2013/12/08 18:07 (external edit)