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learning_theories:drive_reduction_theory [2011/08/26 12:41]
jpetrovic [What is drive reduction theory?]
learning_theories:drive_reduction_theory [2013/09/30 17:19]
jpetrovic [What is drive reduction theory?]
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 ===== General ===== ===== General =====
  
-Drive reduction theory was introduced in 1930s by an eminent American psychologist [[http://​www.newworldencyclopedia.org/​entry/​Clark_L._Hull|Clark Hull]], whose works were **influenced by other behaviorists** like [[http://​www.ivanpavlov.com/​|Ivan Pavlov]], [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​thorndike.htm|Edward Thorndike]] and [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​tolman.htm|Edward Tolman]], but also by [[http://www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=1&​ved=0CB0QFjAA&​url=http%3A%2F%2Fhr.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FCharles_Darwin&​rct=j&​q=charles%20Darwin&​ei=0HJXTte6IOjZ4QScgZmwDA&​usg=AFQjCNGi2OrPOZzy4GV4X6wrdQfXzOjqpg&​cad=rja|Charles Darwin]]'​s theory of evolution.(([[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​behaviorism/​clarkhull.html|Cooper,​ S. Clark Hull Drive Reduction Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology.]])) Hull's theory was at the time very influential. As a general learning theory it tried to explain **all behavior** and the likelihood of its appearance mathematically using a **set of formula**. Another area of Hull's interest was hypnosis research. He conducted a number of laboratory experiments in which he finally showed that hypnosis and sleep are two completely separate states.(([[http://​books.google.hr/books?​id=6eK_bwAACAAJ&​dq=Hypnosis%20and%20Suggestibility%3A%20An%20Experimental%20Approach&​source=gbs_book_other_versions|Hull, Clark H. Hypnosis and Suggestibility:​ An Experimental Approach. Carmarthen, Wales: Crown House Publishing. 1933.]]))+Drive reduction theory was introduced in 1930s by an eminent American psychologist [[http://​www.newworldencyclopedia.org/​entry/​Clark_L._Hull|Clark Hull]], whose works were **influenced by other behaviorists** like [[http://​www.ivanpavlov.com/​|Ivan Pavlov]], [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​thorndike.htm|Edward Thorndike]] and [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​tolman.htm|Edward Tolman]], but also by [[http://​hr.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Charles_Darwin|Charles Darwin]]'​s theory of evolution.(([[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​behaviorism/​clarkhull.html|Cooper,​ S. Clark Hull Drive Reduction Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology.]])) Hull's theory was at the time very influential. As a general learning theory it tried to explain **all behavior** and the likelihood of its appearance mathematically using a **set of formula**. Another area of Hull's interest was hypnosis research. He conducted a number of laboratory experiments in which he finally showed that hypnosis and sleep are two completely separate states.(([[http://​www.tandfonline.com/doi/​abs/​10.1080/​00029157.2004.10403608|Hull, Clark H. Hypnosis and Suggestibility:​ An Experimental Approach. Carmarthen, Wales: Crown House Publishing. 1933.]]))
  
  
 ===== What is drive reduction theory? ===== ===== What is drive reduction theory? =====
  
-Like other behaviorists,​ Hull was only interested in **overt behavior**, yet he did not deny existence of cognitive factors like ideas, prior knowledge, intelligence,​ insight and values. He excluded this factors from his theory since they could not be scientifically measured.(([[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​behaviorism/​clarkhull.html|Cooper,​ S. Clark Hull Drive Reduction Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology.]]))+Like other behaviorists,​ Hull was only interested in **overt behavior**, yet he did not deny existence of cognitive factors like ideas, prior knowledge, intelligence,​ insight and values. He excluded this factors from his theory since they could not be //scientifically// measured.(([[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​behaviorism/​clarkhull.html|Cooper,​ S. Clark Hull Drive Reduction Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology.]]))
  
 In his theory, Hull tried to explain behavior and learning through drive reduction. **"​Drive"​** presents a **stimulus** in form of a biological need like hunger, thirst, cold or sexual interest. It is a state of need, when a living organism feels the needs to behave in certain way to reduce the need and restore the optimal biological state. The drive therefore **results in behavior** in order **to achieve certain goal** or satisfy the need. If the goal of the drive is achieved, the **drive is reduced** and an optimal state is restored. The **drive reduction** here **is a reinforcer**,​ strengthening the connection between the drive and behavior.(([[http://​www.psywww.com/​intropsych/​ch09_motivation/​hulls_theory.html|Dewey,​ Russ. Hull’s Theory. Psych Web.]])) In his theory, Hull tried to explain behavior and learning through drive reduction. **"​Drive"​** presents a **stimulus** in form of a biological need like hunger, thirst, cold or sexual interest. It is a state of need, when a living organism feels the needs to behave in certain way to reduce the need and restore the optimal biological state. The drive therefore **results in behavior** in order **to achieve certain goal** or satisfy the need. If the goal of the drive is achieved, the **drive is reduced** and an optimal state is restored. The **drive reduction** here **is a reinforcer**,​ strengthening the connection between the drive and behavior.(([[http://​www.psywww.com/​intropsych/​ch09_motivation/​hulls_theory.html|Dewey,​ Russ. Hull’s Theory. Psych Web.]]))
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 Hull's theory was mostly orientated on S-R relationship and reinforcement. If a S-R relationship is followed by a reduction of the drive, the probability of same prior response on similar situations in the future increases. S-R relationship (**//habit strength//​**) becomes stronger through the number of **reinforcements**. Biological needs were according to Hull //primary drives//, but he also believed there are //secondary drives// (learned drives), which refer to situations associated with reduction of primary drives. That means a neutral stimulus can have primary drive characteristics,​ because it is capable of eliciting responses similar to those caused by primary drive. ​ Hull's theory was mostly orientated on S-R relationship and reinforcement. If a S-R relationship is followed by a reduction of the drive, the probability of same prior response on similar situations in the future increases. S-R relationship (**//habit strength//​**) becomes stronger through the number of **reinforcements**. Biological needs were according to Hull //primary drives//, but he also believed there are //secondary drives// (learned drives), which refer to situations associated with reduction of primary drives. That means a neutral stimulus can have primary drive characteristics,​ because it is capable of eliciting responses similar to those caused by primary drive. ​
  
-In order to offer a full, scientific explanation of learning, Hull developed a **formula**((Formula was retrieved from [[http://​fates.cns.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​hull.htm|Schrock,​ J. Psychology History: Clark Hull]], but different forms of the formula appear in defferent sources like [[http://​webspace.ship.edu/​cgboer/​beh.html|Boeree,​ G. Behaviorism]] or [[http://​www.psywww.com/​intropsych/​ch09_motivation/​hulls_theory.html|Dewey,​ R. Hull's Theory.]])) in which he tried to mathematically explain and **predict a likelihood of behavior**. This formula measures **habit strength** defined as the strength of the S-R bond. This bond represents learning. Hull's equation claims:+In order to offer a full, scientific explanation of learning, Hull developed a **formula**((Formula was retrieved from [[http://​fates.cns.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​hull.htm|Schrock,​ J. Psychology History: Clark Hull]] ​(link obsolete), but different forms of the formula appear in defferent sources like [[http://​webspace.ship.edu/​cgboer/​beh.html|Boeree,​ G. Behaviorism]] or [[http://​www.psywww.com/​intropsych/​ch09_motivation/​hulls_theory.html|Dewey,​ R. Hull's Theory.]])) in which he tried to mathematically explain and **predict a likelihood of behavior**. This formula measures **habit strength** defined as the strength of the S-R bond. This bond represents learning. Hull's equation claims:
  
     sEr = (sHr x D x K x V) - (sIr + Ir) ± sOr     sEr = (sHr x D x K x V) - (sIr + Ir) ± sOr
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   * sHr - reinforced trainings improve the S-R connection resulting in **learning** (of a motor skill).   * sHr - reinforced trainings improve the S-R connection resulting in **learning** (of a motor skill).
-  * D - **deprivation of drive** results in **improved performance**. Experiments have shown that if two rats had the same amount of training, the one who had been deprived of food for a greater period of time would be more likely to find a solution to a maze in order to obtain food (([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=VwVKAAAAYAAJ&​q=Hergenhahn,​+B.+and+Olson,​+M.+%22Theories+of+Learning%22&​dq=Hergenhahn,​+B.+and+Olson,​+M.+%22Theories+of+Learning%22&​hl=hr&​ei=aKprTcDVBYq28QPduO3xBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA|Hergenhahn,​ B. and Olson, M. Theories of Learning, 7th edition: Pearson Eductation, 2005.]])).+  * D - **deprivation of drive** results in **improved performance**. Experiments have shown that if two rats had the same amount of training, the one who had been deprived of food for a greater period of time would be more likely to find a solution to a maze in order to obtain food (([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=VwVKAAAAYAAJ|Hergenhahn,​ B. and Olson, M. Theories of Learning, 7th edition: Pearson Eductation, 2005.]])).
   * K - **incentive motivation** refers to the size of the **prize** and directly affects motivation to achieve certain goal. This explains why athletes perform better in playoffs than during regular season play since the incentive motivation of each game has increased.   * K - **incentive motivation** refers to the size of the **prize** and directly affects motivation to achieve certain goal. This explains why athletes perform better in playoffs than during regular season play since the incentive motivation of each game has increased.
   * V - **clarity** of the stimulus can **affect the performance**. If an sportsman is trying to catch the ball, blinding sunlight can affect clarity of the stimulus.   * V - **clarity** of the stimulus can **affect the performance**. If an sportsman is trying to catch the ball, blinding sunlight can affect clarity of the stimulus.
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 Hull, C. The Conflicting Psychologies of Learning—A Way Out. Psychological Review 42: 491–516. 1935. Hull, C. The Conflicting Psychologies of Learning—A Way Out. Psychological Review 42: 491–516. 1935.
  
-[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=19s9AAAAYAAJ&​q=Hull,​+C.+Mind,​+Mechanism,​+and+Adaptive+Behavior.&​dq=Hull,​+C.+Mind,​+Mechanism,​+and+Adaptive+Behavior.&​hl=hr&​ei=c6trTdf_EsGV8QPVgYnyBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA|Hull, C. Mind, Mechanism, and Adaptive Behavior. Psychological Review 44: 1–32. 1937.]]+[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=19s9AAAAYAAJ|Hull,​ C. Mind, Mechanism, and Adaptive Behavior. Psychological Review 44: 1–32. 1937.]]
  
-[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=GGUQAQAAMAAJ&​q=Hull,​+C.+Mathematico-Deductive+Theory+of+Rote+Learning&​dq=Hull,​+C.+Mathematico-Deductive+Theory+of+Rote+Learning&​hl=hr&​ei=YatrTZj3LoOV8QPJk8nyBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA|Hull, C. Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning. (1940) Greenwood Pub Group. 1972.]]+[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=GGUQAQAAMAAJ|Hull,​ C. Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning. (1940) Greenwood Pub Group. 1972.]]
  
-[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=6WB9AAAAMAAJ&​q=Hull,​+C.+Principles+of+Behavior:​+An+Introduction+to+Behavior+Theory&​dq=Hull,​+C.+Principles+of+Behavior:​+An+Introduction+to+Behavior+Theory&​hl=hr&​ei=PatrTaOyM8y28QOBlrHyBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=4&​ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw|Hull, C. Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1943.]]+[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=6WB9AAAAMAAJ|Hull,​ C. Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1943.]]
  
-[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=UPMMAAAAIAAJ&​q=Hull,​+C.+Essentials+of+Behavior.&​dq=Hull,​+C.+Essentials+of+Behavior.&​hl=hr&​ei=FqtrTf-LLdSv8QPMl9TyBw&​sa=X&​oi=book_result&​ct=result&​resnum=1&​ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA|Hull, C. Essentials of Behavior. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1951.]]+[[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=UPMMAAAAIAAJ|Hull,​ C. Essentials of Behavior. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1951.]]
  
  
learning_theories/drive_reduction_theory.txt · Last modified: 2013/09/30 17:19 by jpetrovic