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learning_theories:experiential_learning [2013/09/30 22:43]
jpetrovic [Keywords and most important names]
learning_theories:experiential_learning [2013/09/30 22:46]
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-====== Experiential Learning Theory ====== 
-===== General ===== 
  
-Experiential learning theory is a **cycle learning theory** introduced by American educational theorist [[http://​infed.org/​mobi/​david-a-kolb-on-experiential-learning/​|David Kolb]]((Some sources like [[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​learningmap.html|Cooper,​ S. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology]] or [[http://​tip.psychology.org/​|Kearsley G. Explorations in Learning & Instruction:​ The Theory Into Practice Database]] associate experiential learning with [[http://​www.nrogers.com/​carlrogersbio.html|Carl Rogers]].)) in 1971((Kolb, D. A. Individual learning styles and the learning process. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1971.)) and was inspired by earlier works of [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​lewin.htm|Kurt Lewin]], [[http://​www.piaget.org/​aboutPiaget.html|Jean Piaget]]((See also: [[learning_theories:​Stage Theory of Cognitive Development]])) and [[http://​dewey.pragmatism.org/​|John Dewey]]. As it was developed within [[learning_paradigms:​humanism|humanist paradigm]], experiential learning offers a **holistic perspective on learning** and is orientated mostly on adult learning. Name of this theory was intended to should emphasize the importance of experience in the learning process. 
- 
- 
-Experiential learning theory defines learning as 
- 
-  * "//the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience.//"​(([[http://​www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=1&​ved=0CBYQFjAA&​url=http%3A%2F%2Facademic.regis.edu%2Fed205%2FKolb.pdf&​rct=j&​q=kolb84%20Kolb%20Experiential%20learning.pdf&​ei=24NKTsCeMsee-wb_xI2cCQ&​usg=AFQjCNGdXkEjcY7T1FMOw2SMAxS4Goz96w&​cad=rja|Kolb,​ David A. Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall,​ 1984.]])) 
- 
- 
-===== What is experiential learning? ===== 
- 
-The experiential learning theory is based on six propositions(([[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ Alice Y., and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212, 2005.]])) short described with the following three: 
- 
-  - Learning is best described as a holistic process of creating knowledge and adapting to the world. 
-  - Learning is actually relearning, since it is greatly dependent on already learned material. 
-  - Learning is driven by conflict, differences,​ and disagreement and results in assimilation and accommodation. 
- 
-[[http://​www.businessballs.com/​kolblearningstyles.htm|{{ ​ :​images:​kolb.jpg?​550|Kolb'​s original four learning styles and stages. Image borrowed from: http://​www.businessballs.com/​... Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]] 
- 
-Kolb(([[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ Alice Y., and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212, 2005.]])) suggests two opposite modes of acquiring experience: 
- 
-    * **concrete experience** or CE (feeling through practical experiencing),​ 
-    * **abstract conceptualization** or AC (concluding and thinking about the experience),​ 
- 
-and two opposite modes of transforming that experience into knowledge: 
- 
-    * **reflective observation** or RO (actively observing experience and its outcomes), 
-    * **active experimentation** or AE (planing on how to test something and finally doing). 
- 
-All of these components together form a circle of learning in which they follow one after another: CE->​RO->​AC->​AE->​CE->​... The very process of **learning can begin in any of them**. Still, every learner develops strengths in some of mentioned modes more than in others and learn better under those conditions, which results in four different **learning styles** identified also by Kolb(([[http://​www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=1&​ved=0CBYQFjAA&​url=http%3A%2F%2Facademic.regis.edu%2Fed205%2FKolb.pdf&​rct=j&​q=kolb84%20Kolb%20Experiential%20learning.pdf&​ei=24NKTsCeMsee-wb_xI2cCQ&​usg=AFQjCNGdXkEjcY7T1FMOw2SMAxS4Goz96w&​cad=rja]|Kolb,​ David A. Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall,​ 1984.]]))(([[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ Alice Y., and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212, 2005.]])): 
- 
-    * **Assimilator** - Strong in AC and RO components. Prefers **abstract conceptualizations** and theoretical models, requires time to think through. Values **logical validity** more than practical applications. ​ 
-    * **Converger** - Strong in AC and AE components. Prefers **practical applications** of concepts and theories he learns and like experimenting. They are often good problem solvers and like dealing with technical issues. ​ 
-    * **Accommodator** - Strong in CE and AE components. Prefers **practical experiences** and acting more according to the feeling than based on logical analysis or theoretical aspects. 
-    * **Diverger** - Strong in CE and RO modes. Prefers **learning through observing** and **collecting information**,​ good at viewing concrete situations from different points of view. This kind of people are often imaginative and emotional, and often specialize in arts.(([[http://​www.d.umn.edu/​~kgilbert/​educ5165-731/​Readings/​experiential-learning-theory.pdf|Kolb,​ D. A, R. E Boyatzis, and C. Mainemelis. Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles. The educational psychology series: 227–247. 2001.]])) 
- 
-[[http://​www.d.umn.edu/​~kgilbert/​educ5165-731/​Readings/​experiential-learning-theory.pdf|{{:​images:​kolb9.jpg?​400x400 |The new 9 learning styles. Notice how the old learning styles now form the corners of the rectangle. Image borrowed from: Kolb, D A. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]] 
- 
-Kolb's model was later refined by himself and other researchers(([[http://​tcp.sagepub.com/​content/​13/​3/​477.abstract|Abbey,​ David S., David E. Hunt, and John C. Weiser. Variations on a Theme by Kolb. The Counseling Psychologist 13, no. 3: 477 -501, 1985.]]))(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=FqZ9AAAAMAAJ|Hunt,​ David Ellis. Beginning with ourselves in practice, theory, and human affairs. Brookline Books, 1987.]]))(([[http://​www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=3&​ved=0CDEQFjAC&​url=http%3A%2F%2Flearningfromexperience.com%2Fmedia%2F2010%2F08%2FAdaptive-flexibility-2000.pdf&​rct=j&​q=Learning%20styles%20and%20adaptive%20flexibility&​ei=wJJLTsipB4ee-QbUgoT3CA&​usg=AFQjCNEtw0y7d9xEjMbQGRCJW4B0K7Kycg&​cad=rja|Mainemelis,​ Charalampos,​ Richard E. Boyatzis, and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Adaptive Flexibility. Management Learning 33, no. 1: 5-33, March 2002.]])) through improvement of the learning styles grid resolution from 2x2 to 3x3 by introducing five additional learning styles(([[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ Alice Y., and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212, 2005.]])): 
- 
-  * **Northerner** - Strong in CE and balanced in AE and RO modes. Has a capacity for deep involvement and learns through experimenting,​ but has problems with conceptualizations. 
-  * **Westerner** - Strong in AE and balanced in CE and AC modes. ​ Has great action skills and possibilities for thinking and conceptualizing,​ but problems with analyzing past experience. 
-  * **Easterner** - Strong in RO and balanced in CE and AC modes. Has great observation and reflection skills as well as learning from concrete experience, but problems with putting his plans into action. 
-  * **Southerner** - Strong in AC and balanced in AE and RO modes. Has great conceptualization skills, but little use of practical experiences. 
-  * **Balancing** - Evenly balancing both modes of acquiring experience and both modes of transforming that experience into knowledge. 
- 
-In order to identify preferred learning style in Kolb's model, "​**[[http://​www.haygroup.com/​au/​services/​index.aspx?​ID=14323|learn­ing style inven­tory]]**"​ method has been developed. This **method for determining an individual’s optimal learn­ing style**, strengths and weaknesses consists of a survey which explores one's perceiving (how one prefers to acquire information) and processing (how one makes sense of new things). Various variants of this method can be found in simplified free on-line tests((For example: [[http://​casa.colorado.edu/​~dduncan/​teachingseminar/​KolbLearningStyleInventoryInfo.pdf|Duncan,​ D. Kolb Learning Style Inventory. University of Colorado at Boulder.]])) and newer methods like //the adaptive style inventory// or //the learning skills profile// ​ have also been introduced(([[http://​www.google.hr/​url?​sa=t&​source=web&​cd=3&​ved=0CDEQFjAC&​url=http%3A%2F%2Flearningfromexperience.com%2Fmedia%2F2010%2F08%2FAdaptive-flexibility-2000.pdf&​rct=j&​q=Learning%20styles%20and%20adaptive%20flexibility&​ei=wJJLTsipB4ee-QbUgoT3CA&​usg=AFQjCNEtw0y7d9xEjMbQGRCJW4B0K7Kycg&​cad=rja|Mainemelis,​ Charalampos,​ Richard E. Boyatzis, and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Adaptive Flexibility. Management Learning 33, no. 1: 5 -33, March 2002.]])). 
- 
-Kolb's theory has also influenced other authors to create similar models for determining of preferred learning style. The critique that Kolb's learning styles inventory was difficult to apply to people who never really paid attention to how they learn more efficiently encouraged [[http://​peterhoney.org/​|Peter Honey]] and [[http://​www.spoke.com/​info/​p6KOsS0/​AlanMumford|Alan Mumford]] to create their //Learning Styles Questionnaire//​(([[http://​www.peterhoney.com|Honey & Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ)]])). It was based on Kolb's theory, but instead of asking people how they learn it was probing for most common learning behaviors. Other similar models include: [[http://​web.cortland.edu/​andersmd/​learning/​Gregorc.htm|Anthony Gregorc]]'​s //Mind Styles Model//​(([[http://​www.amazon.com/​Mind-Styles-Model-Principles-Applications/​dp/​B000N5LRJA|The Mind Styles Model: Theory, Principles, and Applications. AFG, 2006.]])), [[http://​www.vark-learn.com/​english/​page.asp?​p=biography|Neil Fleming]]'​s VARK Model(([[http://​www.vark-learn.com/​english/​index.asp|VARK a guide to learning styles]])) and other. 
-===== What is the practical meaning of experiential learning? ===== 
- 
-Experiential learning is a model **suggested for adult learners**. General implications of this model are that teaching/​learning process should consist of all four stages of Kolb's model, but it also suggests **individual changes** should be applied, depending on learners learning style. 
- 
-  * Assimilators - prefer **watching**,​ **thinking** and **good explanations of theories and ideas** to practical experiences. This kind of learners usually enjoy lectures and readings as well as having enough time to think about new ideas. 
-  * Convergers - prefer **doing** and **thinking**,​ **finding practical solutions** to problems. This kind of learners usually like new ideas and their practical applications. 
-  * Accomodators - prefer **practical experiences** and **intuitive approach** instead of reading instructions. This kind of learners also usually prefer **teamwork**. 
-  * Divergers - prefer **watching**,​ **collecting information**,​ **working in groups** and brainstorm instead of having practical experience. 
- 
-Kolb's theory was applied in a number of studies on topics that include (online) education, computer and information science, psychology, management, medicine, nursing, accounting and law.(([[http://​www.d.umn.edu/​~kgilbert/​educ5165-731/​Readings/​experiential-learning-theory.pdf|Kolb,​ D. A, R. E Boyatzis, and C. Mainemelis. Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles. The educational psychology series: 227–247, 2001.]]))(([[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ D A. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212. 2005.]]))(([[http://​www.sicet.org/​journals/​ijttl/​issue0501/​Richmond.Vol1.Iss1.pp45-54.pdf|Richmond,​ A. S, and R. Cummings. Implementing Kolb’s learning styles into online distance education. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning 1, no. 1: 45–54, 2005.]])) 
-===== Criticisms ===== 
- 
-Some of the criticisms referring to Kolb's theory suggest: 
- 
-    * his learning cycle is **oversimplified** and ignores non-experiential ways of learning((Forrest,​ C. Kolb's Learning Cycle. Train the Trainer, 12, 2004. cited by [[http://​reviewing.co.uk/​research/​experiential.learning.htm#​2#​ixzz1HFOLReyw|Greenaway,​ R. Experiential Learning articles and critiques of David Kolb's theory]].)),​ 
-    * his learning cycle pays insufficient attention to **goals**, **purposes**,​ **intentions**,​ choice and decision-making,​ which are also a part of learning(([[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=M3zsc-MJaSwC|Harrison,​ R. Supporting Lifelong Learning: Perspectives on learning. Routledge, 2002.]])) 
-    * the results of //learning style inventory// are based solely on the way learners rate themselves which results in **questionable results**(([[http://​iteslj.org/​Articles/​Kelly-Experiential/​|Curtis,​ K. David Kolb, The Theory of Experiential Learning and ESL. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. 3(9), September 1997.]])) 
- 
-Results of experimental validation vary: a meta-study of 81 studies implementing experiential learning resulted in 61.7% of the 
-studies supporting it, 16.1% showing mixed support, and 22.2% not support experiential learning theory.((Hickcox,​ L. K. 1991. An historical review of Kolb’s formulation of experiential learning theory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,​ University of Oregon, Corvallis. Cited by [[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ Alice Y., and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212, 2005.]])) In another meta-study of learning style inventory assessment, out of analyzed studies, 49 showed strong support, 40 showed mixed support, and 12 studies showed no support at all.((Iliff,​ C. H. 1994. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory: A meta-analysis. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation,​ Boston University, Boston, MA. Cited by [[http://​citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/​viewdoc/​download?​doi=10.1.1.127.6489&​rep=rep1&​type=pdf|Kolb,​ Alice Y., and David A. Kolb. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces : Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning Education 4, no. 2: 193-212, 2005]].)) 
- 
- 
-===== Keywords and most important names ===== 
- 
-    * **Concrete experience (CE)**, **reflective observation (RO)**, **abstract conceptualization (AC)**, **active experimentation (AE)**, **assimilator**,​ **converger**,​ **accomodator**,​ **diverger**,​ **learn­ing style inven­tory**,​ **learning styles**, **northerner**,​ **westerner**,​ **easterner**,​ **southerner**,​ **balancing ** 
-    * [[http://​infed.org/​mobi/​david-a-kolb-on-experiential-learning/​|David Kolb]] 
- 
- 
-===== Bibliography ===== 
- 
-[[http://​www.d.umn.edu/​~kgilbert/​educ5165-731/​Readings/​experiential-learning-theory.pdf|Kolb,​ D. A, R. E Boyatzis, and C. Mainemelis. Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles. The educational psychology series: 227–247. 2001.]] 
- 
-[[http://​www.learning-theories.com/​experiential-learning-kolb.html|Experiential Learning (Kolb). Learning Theories Knowledgebase.]] Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
- 
-[[http://​tip.psychology.org/​rogers.html|Kearsley,​ G. Experiential Learning. Theory Into Practice Database.]] Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
- 
-[[http://​reviewing.co.uk/​research/​experiential.learning.htm#​axzz1HFPk4RNX|Greenaway,​ R. Experiential Learning articles and critiques of David Kolb's theory.]] Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
- 
-[[http://​my.safaribooksonline.com/​book/​professional-development/​9780787972929|Lowy,​ Alex, and Phil Hood. The power of the 2x2 matrix: using 2x2 thinking to solve business problems and make better decisions. John Wiley and Sons, 2004.]] 
- 
-[[http://​www.nwlink.com/​~donclark/​hrd/​styles/​honey_mumford.html|Big Dog and Little Dog's Performance Juxtaposition:​ Honey and Mumford'​s Learning Styles Questionnaire.]] Retrieved February 8, 2011. 
-===== Read more ===== 
- 
-[[http://​www.amazon.co.uk/​Experiential-Learning-Experience-Source-Development/​dp/​0132952610#​reader_0132952610|Kolb,​ David A. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice-Hall,​ Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1984.]] 
- 
-Kolb, David A. Learning style inventory. Boston, MA: McBer and Company. 1985. 
- 
-[[http://​www.d.umn.edu/​~kgilbert/​educ5165-731/​Readings/​experiential-learning-theory.pdf|Kolb,​ D. A, R. E Boyatzis, and Mainemelis, C. Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. Perspectives on thinking, learning, and cognitive styles: p227–247. 2001.]] 
- 
-[[http://​learningfromexperience.com/​research-library/​experiential-learning-and-its-critics/​|Kayes,​ D. Christopher. Experiential Learning and Its Critics: Preserving the Role of Experience in Management Learning and Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education 1, no. 2: 137-149, December 2002.]] 
learning_theories/experiential_learning.txt · Last modified: 2013/09/30 22:46 (external edit)