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learning_theories:schema_theory [2011/07/11 13:49]
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learning_theories:schema_theory [2013/12/10 16:32] (current)
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-Concept of schema theory, one of the [[learning_paradigms:​cognitivism#​learning_theories|cognitivist learning theories]], was firstly introduced in 1930s through the work of British psychologist [[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​|Sir Frederic Bartlett]] and was further developed mostly in 1970s by American educational psychologist [[http://​www.education.com/​reference/​article/​anderson-richard-chase-1934-/​|Richard Anderson]](([[http://​tip.psychology.org/​schank.html|Kearsley,​ Greg. Script theory (R. Schank). The Theory Into Practice Database.]])). Schema theory describes how knowledge is acquired, processed and organized. The starting assumption of this theory is that "//​very act of [[:​glossary#​comprehension|comprehension]] involves one’s knowledge of the +Concept of schema theory, one of the [[learning_paradigms:​cognitivism#​learning_theories|cognitivist learning theories]], was firstly introduced in 1932 through the work of British psychologist [[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​|Sir Frederic Bartlett]](([[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​TheoryOfRemembering.htm|Bartlett,​ Frederic (Sir). Remembering:​ A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press, 1932.]])) (some suggest it was first introduced in 1926 by [[http://​www.piaget.org/​aboutPiaget.html|Jean Piaget]](([[http://​www.up.ac.za/​saafecs/​vol30/​erasmus.pdf|Erasmus,​ A. C, E. Bishoff, and G. G. Rousseau. The potential of using script theory in consumer behaviour research. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, 2010.]]))) ​and was further developed mostly in 1970s by American educational psychologist [[http://​www.education.com/​reference/​article/​anderson-richard-chase-1934-/​|Richard Anderson]](([[http://​tip.psychology.org/​schank.html|Kearsley,​ Greg. Script theory (R. Schank). The Theory Into Practice Database.]])). Schema theory describes how knowledge is acquired, processed and organized. The starting assumption of this theory is that "//​very act of [[:​glossary#​comprehension|comprehension]] involves one’s knowledge of the 
 world//"​(([[http://​aer.sagepub.com/​content/​14/​4/​367.abstract|Anderson,​ R. C., R. E. Reynolds, D. L. Schallert, and E. T. Goetz. Frameworks for Comprehending Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 14, no. 4: 367-381. January 1977.]])). According to this theory, knowledge is a **network of mental frames** or cognitive constructs called //​**[[::​glossary#​schema]]**//​ (pl. //​**schemata**//​). Schemata organize knowledge stored in the long-term memory. world//"​(([[http://​aer.sagepub.com/​content/​14/​4/​367.abstract|Anderson,​ R. C., R. E. Reynolds, D. L. Schallert, and E. T. Goetz. Frameworks for Comprehending Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 14, no. 4: 367-381. January 1977.]])). According to this theory, knowledge is a **network of mental frames** or cognitive constructs called //​**[[::​glossary#​schema]]**//​ (pl. //​**schemata**//​). Schemata organize knowledge stored in the long-term memory.
  
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-The term **schema** is nowadays often used even outside cognitive psychology and refers to a **mental framework** humans use to represent and **organize remembered information**. Schemata ("//​the building blocks of cognition//"​((Rumelhart,​ D. E. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 3-26). ​ Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 1982.))) present our personal simplified view over reality derived from our experience and prior knowledge, they enable us to **recall, modify our behavior**, or try to **predict most likely outcomes of events**. According to [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]]((Rumelhart,​ D. E. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 3-26). ​ Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 1982.)),+The term **schema** is nowadays often used even outside cognitive psychology and refers to a **mental framework** humans use to represent and **organize remembered information**. Schemata ("//​the building blocks of cognition//"​((Rumelhart,​ D. E. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 3-26). ​ Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 1982.))) present our personal simplified view over reality derived from our experience and prior knowledge, they enable us to **recall, modify our behavior**, concentrate attention on key information(([[https://​test.ideals.illinois.edu/​bitstream/​handle/​123456789/​8028/​ctrstreadtechrepv01977i00024_opt.pdf|Anderson,​ Richard C, Rand J. Spiro, and Mark C Anderson. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 15, no. 3: 433-440, June 20, 1978.]])), or try to **predict most likely outcomes of events**. According to [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]](([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=WtKcAAAAMAAJ|Rumelhart, D. E. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 3-26). ​ Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 1982.]])),
  
 [[http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​literacy/​implementaliteracyprogram/​schematheoryoflearning.htm|{{ ​  :​images:​egg_schema.jpg?​450x390|Example of an egg schema. Image borrowed from: http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​... Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]] [[http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​literacy/​implementaliteracyprogram/​schematheoryoflearning.htm|{{ ​  :​images:​egg_schema.jpg?​450x390|Example of an egg schema. Image borrowed from: http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​... Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]]
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   * **//​language schema//** - knowledge of the vocabulary and relationships of the words in text   * **//​language schema//** - knowledge of the vocabulary and relationships of the words in text
  
-can cause easier or more difficult text comprehension(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/​PDFs/​2006100.pdf|Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])), depending on **how developed** the mentioned schemata are, and weather they are **successfully activated**.((Carrell,​ P.L.  Interactive text processing; Implications for ESL/second language reading. In P, L. Carrell, J. Devine & D.E. Eskey (Eds.) Interactive Approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988.)). According to Brown((Brown,​ H.D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001)), when reading a text, it alone does not carry the meaning a reader attributes to it. The **meaning is formed by the** information and cultural and emotional **context the reader brings** through his schemata more than by the text itself. Text **comprehension and retention** therefore **depend** mostly **on the schemata the reader possesses**,​ among which the content schema should be one of most important, as suggested by Al-Issa(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/PDFs/2006100.pdf|Al-Issa, Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])). ​+can cause easier or more difficult text comprehension(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/​PDFs/​2006100.pdf|Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])), depending on **how developed** the mentioned schemata are, and weather they are **successfully activated**.((Carrell,​ P.L.  Interactive text processing; Implications for ESL/second language reading. In P, L. Carrell, J. Devine & D.E. Eskey (Eds.) Interactive Approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988.)). According to Brown(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=ZE4CAgAACAAJ|Brown, H.D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001.]])), when reading a text, it alone does not carry the meaning a reader attributes to it. The **meaning is formed by the** information and cultural and emotional **context the reader brings** through his schemata more than by the text itself. Text **comprehension and retention** therefore **depend** mostly **on the schemata the reader possesses**,​ among which the content schema should be one of most important, as suggested by Al-Issa(([[http://​www.scribd.com/doc/45848596/​Al-Issa-2006-Schema-Tehory-and-L2-Reading-Comprehension|Al-Issa, Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])). ​
  
 ===== What is the practical meaning of schema theory? ===== ===== What is the practical meaning of schema theory? =====
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 Schema theory emphasizes **importance** of **general knowledge and concepts** that will help forming schemata. In educational process the task of **teachers** would be to **help learners to develop new schemata** and **establish connections between them**. Also, due to the importance of prior knowledge, teachers should make sure that students have it.  Schema theory emphasizes **importance** of **general knowledge and concepts** that will help forming schemata. In educational process the task of **teachers** would be to **help learners to develop new schemata** and **establish connections between them**. Also, due to the importance of prior knowledge, teachers should make sure that students have it. 
  
-"//The schemata a person already possesses are a principal determiner of what will be learned from a new text.//((Anderson, Richard C., Rand J. Spiro, and Mark C. Anderson. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 15, no. 3 (June 20, 1978): 433 -440.))+"//The schemata a person already possesses are a principal determiner of what will be learned from a new text.//"(([[https://​test.ideals.illinois.edu/​bitstream/​handle/​123456789/​8028/​ctrstreadtechrepv01977i00024_opt.pdf|Anderson, Richard C., Rand J. Spiro, and Mark C. Anderson. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 15, no. 3: 433-440, June 20, 1978.]]))
  
 Schema theory has been applied in various areas like: Schema theory has been applied in various areas like:
  
   * **motor learning** - schema theory was extended to //schema theory of discrete motor learning// in 1975 by Richard Schmidt(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=ArticleURL&​_udi=B6X04-4NN6WB4-1&​_user=3875467&​_coverDate=07%2F31%2F1975&​_rdoc=1&​_fmt=high&​_orig=gateway&​_origin=gateway&​_sort=d&​_docanchor=&​view=c&​_searchStrId=1663135064&​_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&​_acct=C000050661&​_version=1&​_urlVersion=0&​_userid=3875467&​md5=fed11a01e69d62ad60b567e34a4b475f&​searchtype=a|Schmidt,​ Richard A. A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review 82, no. 4: 225-260. July 1975.]])). Wulf(([[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/​doi/​10.1002/​acp.2350050206/​abstract|Wulf,​ Gabriele. The effect of type of practice on motor learning in children. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), p123-134. March/April 1991.]])) has shown that developing a motor schema has resulted in better performance in children when learning a motor task.   * **motor learning** - schema theory was extended to //schema theory of discrete motor learning// in 1975 by Richard Schmidt(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=ArticleURL&​_udi=B6X04-4NN6WB4-1&​_user=3875467&​_coverDate=07%2F31%2F1975&​_rdoc=1&​_fmt=high&​_orig=gateway&​_origin=gateway&​_sort=d&​_docanchor=&​view=c&​_searchStrId=1663135064&​_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&​_acct=C000050661&​_version=1&​_urlVersion=0&​_userid=3875467&​md5=fed11a01e69d62ad60b567e34a4b475f&​searchtype=a|Schmidt,​ Richard A. A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review 82, no. 4: 225-260. July 1975.]])). Wulf(([[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/​doi/​10.1002/​acp.2350050206/​abstract|Wulf,​ Gabriele. The effect of type of practice on motor learning in children. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), p123-134. March/April 1991.]])) has shown that developing a motor schema has resulted in better performance in children when learning a motor task.
-  * **reading comprehension** - schema theory is often used to assist second language learning since it often contains reading a lot of texts in the target language. Failure to activate adequate schema when reading a text has shown to result in bad comprehension((Bransford,​ John D., and Merieta K. Johnson. Consideration of some problems of comprehension. In Chase, W. G. (editor). Visual information processing. New York: Academic. 1973.)). Various methods have been proposed for dealing with this issue((See: [[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/PDFs/2006100.pdf|Al-Issa, Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])) including giving students texts in their first language on certain topic about which they will later read in target language.+  * **reading comprehension** - schema theory is often used to assist second language learning since it often contains reading a lot of texts in the target language. Failure to activate adequate schema when reading a text has shown to result in bad comprehension((Bransford,​ John D., and Merieta K. Johnson. Consideration of some problems of comprehension. In Chase, W. G. (editor). Visual information processing. New York: Academic. 1973.)). Various methods have been proposed for dealing with this issue((See: [[http://​www.scribd.com/doc/45848596/​Al-Issa-2006-Schema-Tehory-and-L2-Reading-Comprehension|Al-Issa, Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])) including giving students texts in their first language on certain topic about which they will later read in target language.
   * **mathematical problem solving** - Jitendra et al.(([[http://​udel.academia.edu/​PritiHaria/​Papers/​160031/​A_Comparison_of_Single_and_Multiple_Strategy_Instruction_on_Third-Grade_Sudents_Mathematical_Problem_Solving|Jitendra,​ Asha K., Cynthia C. Griffin, Priti Haria, Jayne Leh, Aimee Adams, and Kaduvettoor,​ Anju. A Comparison of Single and Multiple Strategy Instruction on Third-Grade Students'​ Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal of Educational Psychology 99, no. 1: 115-127. February 2007.]])) conducted a research showing that 3rd-graders taught to using schemata to solve mathematical problems formulated in words performed better than their peers who were taught to solve them in four steps (//read and understand/​plan to solve/​solve/​look back and check//).   * **mathematical problem solving** - Jitendra et al.(([[http://​udel.academia.edu/​PritiHaria/​Papers/​160031/​A_Comparison_of_Single_and_Multiple_Strategy_Instruction_on_Third-Grade_Sudents_Mathematical_Problem_Solving|Jitendra,​ Asha K., Cynthia C. Griffin, Priti Haria, Jayne Leh, Aimee Adams, and Kaduvettoor,​ Anju. A Comparison of Single and Multiple Strategy Instruction on Third-Grade Students'​ Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal of Educational Psychology 99, no. 1: 115-127. February 2007.]])) conducted a research showing that 3rd-graders taught to using schemata to solve mathematical problems formulated in words performed better than their peers who were taught to solve them in four steps (//read and understand/​plan to solve/​solve/​look back and check//).
  
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 Explanations of structures of knowledge have been criticized for being rather **unclear** about what exactly can count as a schema and what does a schema include. The idea of schemata as more complex constructs of memory has also been questioned. Some researchers((McClelland,​ J.L., Rumelhart, D.E. and the PDP Research Group. Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.)) suggest schemata as such are just networks of interacting simple (//​low-level//​) units activated at the same time. For example, a classroom schema is formed by simultaneously activated units of a blackboard, desks, chairs and a teacher. Explanations of structures of knowledge have been criticized for being rather **unclear** about what exactly can count as a schema and what does a schema include. The idea of schemata as more complex constructs of memory has also been questioned. Some researchers((McClelland,​ J.L., Rumelhart, D.E. and the PDP Research Group. Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.)) suggest schemata as such are just networks of interacting simple (//​low-level//​) units activated at the same time. For example, a classroom schema is formed by simultaneously activated units of a blackboard, desks, chairs and a teacher.
  
-On the other hand, schema theory was the starting point or a component for many other cognitivist theories and theorists like [[http://​www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/​~jean/​|Jean Mandler]], [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]] (modes of learning) or [[http://​web.media.mit.edu/​~minsky/​|Marvin Minsky]] (frame theory) who have further expanded it's concepts, and was also included in works of many other theorists like Sweller'​s ([[cognitive_load_theory|cognitive load theory]]) or Ausubell'​s ([[assimilation_theory|assimilation theory]]).+On the other hand, schema theory was the starting point or a component for many other cognitivist theories and theorists like [[http://​www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/​~jean/​|Jean Mandler]](([[http://​www.eric.ed.gov/​ERICWebPortal/​detail?​accno=ED269751|Mandler,​ Jean Matter. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, 1984.]])), [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]] (modes of learning) or [[http://​web.media.mit.edu/​~minsky/​|Marvin Minsky]] (frame theory) who have further expanded it's concepts, and was also included in works of many other theorists like Sweller'​s ([[cognitive_load_theory|cognitive load theory]]) or Ausubell'​s ([[assimilation_theory|assimilation theory]]).
  
  
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 [[http://​www.science.mcmaster.ca/​kinesiology/​images/​stories/​Sherwood202620Lee20RQES.pdf|Sherwood,​ D. E, and T. D Lee. Schema theory: critical review and implications for the role of cognition in a new theory of motor learning.” Research quarterly for exercise and sport 74, no. 4: 376–382. 2003.]] [[http://​www.science.mcmaster.ca/​kinesiology/​images/​stories/​Sherwood202620Lee20RQES.pdf|Sherwood,​ D. E, and T. D Lee. Schema theory: critical review and implications for the role of cognition in a new theory of motor learning.” Research quarterly for exercise and sport 74, no. 4: 376–382. 2003.]]
  
 +[[http://​www.google.com/​books?​id=2QCWe2r-pvwC|D'​Andrade,​ Roy G. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 1995.]]
  
-D'​AndradeRoy GThe development ​of cognitive anthropologyCambridge University Press1995.+[[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=9KvHdk6TwA0C|MandlerJean MatterStories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects ​of Schema TheoryLawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale1984.]]
  
-Mandler, ​Jean MatterStories, Scripts, and ScenesAspects ​of Schema TheoryLawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, NJ 07642, 1984.+[[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=3yLYAAAAMAAJ|Mandler, ​JM. The foundations of mindThe origins ​of conceptual thoughtNew York: Oxford University Press2004.]]
  
-Minsky'​s frame system theory. In Proceedings of the 1975 workshop on Theoretical issues in natural language processing, 104–116. TINLAP '75. Stroudsburg,​ PA, USAAssociation for Computational Linguistics,​ 1975. +[[http://www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​RememberingBook.htm|Bartlett, F.C. Remembering:​ A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1932.]]
- +
-Mandler, JMThe foundations of mind: The origins of conceptual thought. New York: Oxford University Press2004. +
- +
-Bartlett, F.C. Remembering:​ A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1932.+
  
  
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