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learning_theories:schema_theory [2011/07/11 16:40]
jpetrovic [What is schema theory?]
learning_theories:schema_theory [2013/12/10 16:32] (current)
kmikulic old revision restored (2012/01/12 11:42)
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   * **//​language schema//** - knowledge of the vocabulary and relationships of the words in text   * **//​language schema//** - knowledge of the vocabulary and relationships of the words in text
  
-can cause easier or more difficult text comprehension(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/​PDFs/​2006100.pdf|Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])), depending on **how developed** the mentioned schemata are, and weather they are **successfully activated**.((Carrell,​ P.L.  Interactive text processing; Implications for ESL/second language reading. In P, L. Carrell, J. Devine & D.E. Eskey (Eds.) Interactive Approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988.)). According to Brown(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=ZE4CAgAACAAJ|Brown,​ H.D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001.]])), when reading a text, it alone does not carry the meaning a reader attributes to it. The **meaning is formed by the** information and cultural and emotional **context the reader brings** through his schemata more than by the text itself. Text **comprehension and retention** therefore **depend** mostly **on the schemata the reader possesses**,​ among which the content schema should be one of most important, as suggested by Al-Issa(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/PDFs/2006100.pdf|Al-Issa, Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])). ​+can cause easier or more difficult text comprehension(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/​PDFs/​2006100.pdf|Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])), depending on **how developed** the mentioned schemata are, and weather they are **successfully activated**.((Carrell,​ P.L.  Interactive text processing; Implications for ESL/second language reading. In P, L. Carrell, J. Devine & D.E. Eskey (Eds.) Interactive Approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988.)). According to Brown(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=ZE4CAgAACAAJ|Brown,​ H.D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001.]])), when reading a text, it alone does not carry the meaning a reader attributes to it. The **meaning is formed by the** information and cultural and emotional **context the reader brings** through his schemata more than by the text itself. Text **comprehension and retention** therefore **depend** mostly **on the schemata the reader possesses**,​ among which the content schema should be one of most important, as suggested by Al-Issa(([[http://​www.scribd.com/doc/45848596/​Al-Issa-2006-Schema-Tehory-and-L2-Reading-Comprehension|Al-Issa, Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])). ​
  
 ===== What is the practical meaning of schema theory? ===== ===== What is the practical meaning of schema theory? =====
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 Explanations of structures of knowledge have been criticized for being rather **unclear** about what exactly can count as a schema and what does a schema include. The idea of schemata as more complex constructs of memory has also been questioned. Some researchers((McClelland,​ J.L., Rumelhart, D.E. and the PDP Research Group. Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.)) suggest schemata as such are just networks of interacting simple (//​low-level//​) units activated at the same time. For example, a classroom schema is formed by simultaneously activated units of a blackboard, desks, chairs and a teacher. Explanations of structures of knowledge have been criticized for being rather **unclear** about what exactly can count as a schema and what does a schema include. The idea of schemata as more complex constructs of memory has also been questioned. Some researchers((McClelland,​ J.L., Rumelhart, D.E. and the PDP Research Group. Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.)) suggest schemata as such are just networks of interacting simple (//​low-level//​) units activated at the same time. For example, a classroom schema is formed by simultaneously activated units of a blackboard, desks, chairs and a teacher.
  
-On the other hand, schema theory was the starting point or a component for many other cognitivist theories and theorists like [[http://​www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/​~jean/​|Jean Mandler]], [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]] (modes of learning) or [[http://​web.media.mit.edu/​~minsky/​|Marvin Minsky]] (frame theory) who have further expanded it's concepts, and was also included in works of many other theorists like Sweller'​s ([[cognitive_load_theory|cognitive load theory]]) or Ausubell'​s ([[assimilation_theory|assimilation theory]]).+On the other hand, schema theory was the starting point or a component for many other cognitivist theories and theorists like [[http://​www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/​~jean/​|Jean Mandler]](([[http://​www.eric.ed.gov/​ERICWebPortal/​detail?​accno=ED269751|Mandler,​ Jean Matter. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, 1984.]])), [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]] (modes of learning) or [[http://​web.media.mit.edu/​~minsky/​|Marvin Minsky]] (frame theory) who have further expanded it's concepts, and was also included in works of many other theorists like Sweller'​s ([[cognitive_load_theory|cognitive load theory]]) or Ausubell'​s ([[assimilation_theory|assimilation theory]]).
  
  
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 [[http://​www.google.com/​books?​id=2QCWe2r-pvwC|D'​Andrade,​ Roy G. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 1995.]] [[http://​www.google.com/​books?​id=2QCWe2r-pvwC|D'​Andrade,​ Roy G. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 1995.]]
  
-Mandler, Jean Matter. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, NJ 07642, 1984.+[[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=9KvHdk6TwA0C|Mandler, Jean Matter. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, 1984.]]
  
-Minsky'​s frame system theoryIn Proceedings of the 1975 workshop on Theoretical issues in natural language processing104–116TINLAP '75Stroudsburg,​ PA, USAAssociation for Computational Linguistics,​ 1975.+[[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=3yLYAAAAMAAJ|MandlerJMThe foundations of mindThe origins of conceptual thought. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.]]
  
-Mandler, JMThe foundations of mind: The origins of conceptual thoughtNew York: Oxford University Press2004. +[[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​RememberingBook.htm|Bartlett, F.C. Remembering:​ A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1932.]]
- +
-Bartlett, F.C. Remembering:​ A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1932.+
  
  
learning_theories/schema_theory.1310395246.txt.gz · Last modified: 2012/01/12 11:42 (external edit)