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-====== ​(Ime teorije) ​====== +====== ​Schema Theory ​======
-===== Općenito ===== +
-Koncept teorije shema, jedne od kognitivnih teorija učenja, prvo je uvedena 1932 kroz rad britanskog psihologa Sir Frederic Bartlett1 ) (neki  smatraju kako je uvedena 1926 od strane Jeana Piageta) i dalje je bila razvijena pretežito u 1970-ima od strane Američkog edukacijskog psihologa Richarda Andersona. Teorija shema opisuje kako se znanje stječe, procesuira i organizira. Početna pretpostavka ove teorije je da „sam čin razumijevanja uključuje nečije znanje o svijetu“. ​ Prema ovoj teoriji, znanje je mreža mentalnih okvira ili kognitivnih konstrukata zvanih shema (mn. sheme). Shema organizira znanje pohranjeno u dugoročnom pamćenju. +
-===== Što je (Ime teorije)? ​=====+
  
-Termin shema danas se često koristi i izvan kognitivne psihologije i odnosi se na mentalni okvir koji ljudi koriste kako bi predstavili i organizirali zapamćene informacije. Sheme  („blokovi ​ koji izgrađuje kogniciju“) predstavljaju ​ naš osobni pojednostavljeni pogled na stvarnost ​ izveden ​ iz našeg iskustva i prijašnjeg znanja, oni nam omogućuju ​ da se dosjetimo, modificiramo naše ponašanje, usredotočimo pažnju na ključne informacije , ili pokušamo predvidjeti najvjerojatnije ishode događaja. Prema Davidu Rumelhartu 
-  
-„Sheme mogu predstavljati znanje na svim nivoima- od ideoloških i kulturalnih istina do znanja o značenju specifične riječi , do znanja o tome s koji  su uzorci ekscitacije povezani s kojim slovima abecede. Mi imamo sheme za predstavljanje svih nivoa našeg iskustva, na svim nivoima apstraktnosti. Konačno, naše sheme su naše znanje. Sve naše opće znanje ugrađeno je u sheme. “ 
  
-Sheme se također šire i mijenjaju u vremenu, ​ zbog stjecanja novih informacija,​ ali duboko instalirane sheme suinertne i sporo se mijenjaju. Ovo bi moglo dati objašnjenje ​ zašto neki ljudi žive s netočnim ili nedosljednim vjerovanjima ​ radije nego da ih mijenjaju. Kada se dobije nova informacija,​ ako je moguće, ona će biti prilagođena u postojeću shemu/e ili  će povezana shema biti promijenjena(prilagođena) ​ kako bi se integrirala nova informacija. Naprimjer: tijekom ​ procesa školovanja dijete uči o sisavcima i razvija odgovarajući shemu. Kada dijete čuje da je pliskavica također sisavac,​ono ​ ju najprije pokuša ​ uklopiti u shemu o sisavcima: toplokrvna je, udiše zrak, rođena s dlakom i rađa žive mlade. Ipak, ona živi u vodi za razliku od većine sisavaca i tako se shema o sisavcima mora prilagoditi da bi uklopila novu informaciju.+===== General =====
  
-Teorija shema je djelomice bila pod utjecajem neuspješnih pokušaja u području umjetne inteligencije. 
-Podučavanje kompjutera da čita prirodni tekst ili pokazuje drugo ponašanje nalik ljudskom bilo je prilično neuspješno jer se pokazalo da je to nemoguće bez  dosta informacija koje nisu direktno uključene, ali su inherentno prisutne kod ljudi. ​ Istraživanje je pokazalo da ove inherentne informacije pohranjene u formi shema, na primjer: ​ 
  
-• sadržajne sheme  ​prijašnje znanje o naslovu teksta ​+Concept of schema theory, one of the [[learning_paradigms:​cognitivism#​learning_theories|cognitivist learning theories]], was firstly introduced in 1932 through the work of British psychologist [[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​|Sir Frederic Bartlett]](([[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​TheoryOfRemembering.htm|Bartlett,​ Frederic (Sir). Remembering:​ A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press, 1932.]])) (some suggest it was first introduced in 1926 by [[http://​www.piaget.org/​aboutPiaget.html|Jean Piaget]](([[http://​www.up.ac.za/​saafecs/​vol30/​erasmus.pdf|Erasmus,​ A. C, E. Bishoff, and G. G. Rousseau. The potential of using script theory in consumer behaviour research. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, 2010.]]))) and was further developed mostly in 1970s by American educational psychologist [[http://​www.education.com/​reference/​article/​anderson-richard-chase-1934-/​|Richard Anderson]](([[http://​tip.psychology.org/​schank.html|Kearsley,​ Greg. Script theory (R. Schank). The Theory Into Practice Database.]])). Schema theory describes how knowledge is acquired, processed and organized. The starting assumption of this theory is that "//​very act of [[:​glossary#​comprehension|comprehension]] involves one’s knowledge of the  
 +world//"​(([[http://​aer.sagepub.com/​content/​14/​4/​367.abstract|Anderson,​ R. C., R. E. Reynolds, D. L. Schallert, and E. T. Goetz. Frameworks for Comprehending Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 14, no. 4: 367-381. January 1977.]])). According to this theory, knowledge is a **network of mental frames** or cognitive constructs called //​**[[::​glossary#​schema]]**//​ (pl. //​**schemata**//​). Schemata organize knowledge stored in the long-term memory.
  
-• formalna ​ shema – svijesto strukturi teksta, i +===== What is schema theory? =====
  
-• jezična shema – znanje rječnika i veza između riječi u tekstu ​ 
  
-mogu uzrokovati lakše ili otežano razumijevanje tekstaovisno o tome koliko su  razvijene spomenute shemei jesu li one uspješno aktiviranePrema Brownukada čitamo tekst, on sam ne nosi značenje koje mu čitatelj pridajeZnačenje se stvara sukladno ​ informacijama i kulturalnom i emocionalnom kontekstu koje čitatelj nosi kroz svoje sheme više nego sukladno ​ samom  tekstuRazumijevanje teksta i zadržavanje prema tome većinom ovisi o shemama koje čitatelj posjedujemeđu kojima bi sadržajna shema trebala biti jedna od najvažnijih ​kako predlaže Al-Issa.+The term **schema** is nowadays often used even outside cognitive psychology and refers to a **mental framework** humans use to represent and **organize remembered information**. Schemata ("//​the building blocks of cognition//"​((RumelhartD. E. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 3-26). ​ NewarkDE: International Reading Association1982.))) present our personal simplified view over reality derived from our experience and prior knowledgethey enable us to **recallmodify our behavior**, concentrate attention ​on key information(([[https://​test.ideals.illinois.edu/​bitstream/​handle/​123456789/​8028/​ctrstreadtechrepv01977i00024_opt.pdf|AndersonRichard CRand J. Spiro, and Mark C Anderson. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 15, no. 3: 433-440, June 20, 1978.]])), or try to **predict most likely outcomes of events**. According to [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]](([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=WtKcAAAAMAAJ|Rumelhart,​ D. E. Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In J. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 3-26). ​ Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 1982.]])),
  
-===== Koje je praktično značenje (Ime teorije)=====+[[http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​literacy/​implementaliteracyprogram/​schematheoryoflearning.htm|{{ ​  :​images:​egg_schema.jpg?450x390|Example of an egg schema. Image borrowed from: http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​... Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]]
  
-Teorija ​ shema  naglašava važnost općeg znanja i koncepata koji pomažu ​ formiranju ​ shema U obrazovnom procesu zadatak nastavnika bio bi  pomoći učenicima da razviju nove sheme i uspostave veze između njih Također ​s obzirom na važnost predznanja , nastavnici trebali bi bili sigurni da ga učenici ​ imaju . +  * "//​schemata can represent knowledge at all levels - from ideologies and cultural truths to knowledge about the meaning of a particular word, to knowledge about what patterns of excitations are associated with what letters of the alphabetWe have schemata to represent all levels of our experience, at all levels of abstractionFinallyour schemata are our knowledgeAll of our generic knowledge is embedded in schemata.//"
-” Sheme koje osoba već posjeduje su glavni određivači onoga što će biti naučeno iz novoga teksta12)  +
- ​Teorija sheme se primjenjuje u različitim područjima kao što su:+
  
-• Motoričko učenjeteorija sheme proširena je na teoriju sheme diskretnog motoričkog učenja 1975od strane Richarda SchmidtaWUlf je pokazao da razvijanje motoričke sheme rezultira boljom izvedbom djece dok uče motorički zadata.+Schemata also expand and **change in time**, due to acquisition of new information,​ but deeply installed schemata are inert and slow in changing. This could provide an explanation to why some people live with incorrect or inconsistent beliefs rather then changing them. When new information is retrieved, if possible, it will be **assimilated** into existing schema(ta) or related schema(ta) will be **changed** (//​accommodated//​) in order to integrate the new information. For example: during schooling process a child learns about mammals and develops corresponding schema. When a child hears that a porpoise is a mammal as well, it first tries to fit it into the mammals schema: it's warm-blooded,​ air-breathingis born with hair and gives live birthYet it lives in water unlike most mammals and so the mammals schema has to be accommodated to fit in the new information.
  
-• Razumijevanje čitanja - teorija sheme se često koristi ​ u pomaganju učenja drugoga jezika jer često sadrži čitanje mnogo teksta ​ na ciljnom jeziku ​Neuspjeh ​ u aktivaciji ​ odgovarajuće sheme  prilikom čitanja teksta rezultiralo je  lošim razumijevanjem)Različite metode su predložene za rješavanje ovog problema)uključujući davanje tekstova studentima na njihovom prvom jeziku o određenoj temi o kojoj će kasnije čitati na ciljnom jeziku ​+Schema theory was partly influenced by **unsuccessful attempts** in the area of artificial intelligenceTeaching a **computer** to **read natural text** or display other human-like behavior was rather unsuccessful since it has shown that it is impossible without quite an amount of information that was not directly included, but was inherently present in humansResearch has shown that this inherent information stored in form of schematafor example:
  
-• Rješavanje matematičkih problemaJitendra ​ i sur.  Proveli su istraživanje i pokazali kako su  učenici 3. Razredapoučeni razvijanju shema za rješavanje ​ rječima zadanih matematičkih problema ​ imali bolju izvedbu nego njihovi vršnjaci ​ koji su bili podučeni ​ rješavanju zadataka u četiri koraka (čitanje i razumijevanje7 planiranje rješavanjarješavanjeprovjeravanje)+  * **//content schema//​** ​prior knowledge about the topic of the text 
 +  * **//formal schema//** - awareness of the structure of the textand 
 +  * **//language schema//** - knowledge of the vocabulary and relationships of the words in text
  
-=====Kritike===== +can cause easier or more difficult text comprehension(([[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/​PDFs/​2006100.pdf|Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])), depending on **how developed** the mentioned schemata are, and weather they are **successfully activated**.((Carrell,​ P.L.  Interactive text processing; Implications for ESL/second language reading. In P, L. Carrell, J. Devine & D.E. Eskey (Eds.) Interactive Approaches to second language reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988.)). According to Brown(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=ZE4CAgAACAAJ|Brown,​ H.D. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001.]])), when reading a text, it alone does not carry the meaning a reader attributes to it. The **meaning is formed by the** information and cultural and emotional **context the reader brings** through his schemata more than by the text itself. Text **comprehension and retention** therefore **depend** mostly **on the schemata the reader possesses**,​ among which the content schema should be one of most important, as suggested by Al-Issa(([[http://​www.scribd.com/​doc/​45848596/​Al-Issa-2006-Schema-Tehory-and-L2-Reading-Comprehension|Al-Issa,​ Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])).  
-Objašnjenja strukture znanja kritizirana su zbog nejasnoće o tome što se točno može shvatiti kao shema i što shema uključujeIdeja shema kao kompleksnijih konstrukata pamćenja također se preispituje.  ​Neki istraživači predlažu da su sheme samo mrežeinterakcije ​ jednostavnih ​ (niskorazinskihjedinica aktiviranih u isto vrijemeNa primjershema razreda je formirana simultanom aktivacijom jedinica pločeklupastolica i učitelja.+ 
 +===== What is the practical meaning of schema theory? ​===== 
 + 
 +Schema theory emphasizes **importance** of **general knowledge and concepts** that will help forming schemata. In educational process the task of **teachers** would be to **help learners ​to develop new schemata** and **establish connections between them**. Also, due to the importance of prior knowledge, teachers should make sure that students have it.  
 + 
 +"//The schemata a person already possesses are a principal determiner of what will be learned from a new text.//"​(([[https://​test.ideals.illinois.edu/​bitstream/​handle/​123456789/​8028/​ctrstreadtechrepv01977i00024_opt.pdf|Anderson,​ Richard C., Rand J. Spiro, and Mark C. Anderson. Schemata as Scaffolding for the Representation of Information in Connected Discourse. American Educational Research Journal 15, no. 3: 433-440, June 20, 1978.]])) 
 + 
 +Schema theory has been applied in various areas like: 
 + 
 +  * **motor learning** - schema theory was extended ​to //schema theory of discrete motor learning// in 1975 by Richard Schmidt(([[http://​www.sciencedirect.com/​science?​_ob=ArticleURL&​_udi=B6X04-4NN6WB4-1&​_user=3875467&​_coverDate=07%2F31%2F1975&​_rdoc=1&​_fmt=high&​_orig=gateway&​_origin=gateway&​_sort=d&​_docanchor=&​view=c&​_searchStrId=1663135064&​_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&​_acct=C000050661&​_version=1&​_urlVersion=0&​_userid=3875467&​md5=fed11a01e69d62ad60b567e34a4b475f&​searchtype=a|Schmidt,​ Richard A. A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review 82, no. 4: 225-260. July 1975.]])). Wulf(([[http://​onlinelibrary.wiley.com/​doi/​10.1002/​acp.2350050206/​abstract|Wulf,​ Gabriele. The effect of type of practice on motor learning in children. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5(2), p123-134. March/April 1991.]])) has shown that developing a motor schema has resulted in better performance in children when learning a motor task. 
 +  * **reading comprehension** - schema theory is often used to assist second language learning since it often contains reading a lot of texts in the target language. Failure to activate adequate schema when reading a text has shown to result in bad comprehension((Bransford,​ John D., and Merieta K. Johnson. Consideration of some problems of comprehension. In Chase, W. G. (editor). Visual information processing. New York: Academic. 1973.)). Various methods have been proposed for dealing with this issue((See: [[http://​www.scribd.com/​doc/​45848596/​Al-Issa-2006-Schema-Tehory-and-L2-Reading-Comprehension|Al-Issa,​ Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48. July 2006.]])) including giving students texts in their first language on certain topic about which they will later read in target language. 
 +  * **mathematical problem solving** - Jitendra et al.(([[http://​udel.academia.edu/​PritiHaria/​Papers/​160031/​A_Comparison_of_Single_and_Multiple_Strategy_Instruction_on_Third-Grade_Sudents_Mathematical_Problem_Solving|Jitendra,​ Asha K., Cynthia C. Griffin, Priti Haria, Jayne Leh, Aimee Adams, and Kaduvettoor,​ Anju. A Comparison of Single and Multiple Strategy Instruction on Third-Grade Students'​ Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal of Educational Psychology 99, no. 1: 115-127. February 2007.]])) conducted a research showing that 3rd-graders taught to using schemata to solve mathematical problems formulated in words performed better than their peers who were taught to solve them in four steps (//read and understand/​plan to solve/​solve/​look back and check//). 
 + 
 +[[http://​udel.academia.edu/​PritiHaria/​Papers/​160031/​A_Comparison_of_Single_and_Multiple_Strategy_Instruction_on_Third-Grade_Sudents_Mathematical_Problem_Solving|{{ :​images:​schema.jpg?​480x210 | Example of a schema for a simple goal-free word-formulated mathematical problem. Image borrowed from: Jitendra et al. A Comparison of Single and Multiple Strategy Instruction on Third-Grade Students'​ Mathematical Problem Solving. Journal of Educational Psychology 99, no. 1: 115-127. February 2007. Click on the picture to follow the link. }}]] 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Criticisms ===== 
 + 
 +Explanations of structures of knowledge have been criticized for being rather **unclear** about what exactly can count as a schema and what does a schema include. The idea of schemata as more complex constructs of memory has also been questioned. Some researchers((McClelland,​ J.L., Rumelhart, D.E. and the PDP Research Group. Parallel distributed processing: explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.)) suggest schemata as such are just networks of interacting simple (//​low-level//​) units activated at the same time. For example, a classroom schema is formed by simultaneously activated units of a blackboard, desks, chairs and a teacher. 
 + 
 +On the other hand, schema theory was the starting point or a component for many other cognitivist theories and theorists like [[http://​www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/​~jean/​|Jean Mandler]](([[http://​www.eric.ed.gov/​ERICWebPortal/​detail?​accno=ED269751|Mandler,​ Jean Matter. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, 1984.]])), [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]] (modes of learning) or [[http://​web.media.mit.edu/​~minsky/​|Marvin Minsky]] (frame theory) who have further expanded it's concepts, and was also included in works of many other theorists like Sweller'​s ([[cognitive_load_theory|cognitive load theory]]) or Ausubell'​s ([[assimilation_theory|assimilation theory]]). 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Keywords and most important names ===== 
 + 
 + 
 +  * **schema theory**, **schema**, **schemata**,​ **schema theory of discrete motor learning** 
 +  * [[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​|Sir Frederic Bartlett]], [[http://​www.education.com/​reference/​article/​anderson-richard-chase-1934-/​|Richard Anderson]], [[http://​rumelhartprize.org/​biography.htm|David Rumelhart]],​ Richard Schmidt, [[http://​www.rogerschank.com/​|Roger Schank]] 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Bibliography ===== 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/​PDFs/​2006100.pdf|Al-Issa,​ Ahmad. Schema Theory And L2 Reading Comprehension:​ Implications For Teaching. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 3(7), p41-48July 2006.]] 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.sil.org/​lingualinks/​literacy/​implementaliteracyprogram/​schematheoryoflearning.htm|Schema theory of learning. LinguaLinks Library1999.]] Retrieved March 152011. 
 + 
 +[[http://​eet.sdsu.edu/​eetwiki/​index.php/​Schema_theory_of_learning|Schema theory of learning. The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology.]] Retrieved March 152011. 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.bookrags.com/​tandf/​schema-and-script-theory-tf/​|Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Schema and script theory.]] Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.analytictech.com/​mb870/​schema.htm|Qualitative Research Methods. Schema Theory (drawn from D’Andrade 1995).]] Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
 + 
 +[[http://​red6747.pbworks.com/​w/​page/​8523053/​Schema-Theory|Wiki:​ Schema Theory.]] Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
 +===== Read more ===== 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.science.mcmaster.ca/​kinesiology/​images/​stories/​Sherwood202620Lee20RQES.pdf|Sherwood,​ D. E, and T. D Lee. Schema theory: critical review and implications for the role of cognition in a new theory of motor learning.” Research quarterly for exercise and sport 74, no. 4: 376–382. 2003.]] 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.google.com/​books?​id=2QCWe2r-pvwC|D'​Andrade,​ Roy G. The development of cognitive anthropology. Cambridge University Press, 1995.]] 
 + 
 +[[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=9KvHdk6TwA0C|Mandler,​ Jean Matter. Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers, 365 Broadway, Hillsdale, 1984.]] 
 + 
 +[[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=3yLYAAAAMAAJ|Mandler,​ J. M. The foundations of mind: The origins of conceptual thought. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.]] 
 + 
 +[[http://​www.ppsis.cam.ac.uk/​bartlett/​RememberingBook.htm|Bartlett,​ F.C. Remembering:​ A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 1932.]]
  
-S druge strane, teorija shema bila je početna točka ili sastavnica mnogih drugih kognitivnih teorija i teoretičara kao što su Jean Mandler, David Rumelhart (modeli učenja) ili marvin Minsky (teorija okvira) koji  su dodatno proširili njene koncepte , te je teorija shema također uključena u radove mnogih drugih teoretičara kao što su Sweller (teorija kognitivnog opterećenja) ili Ausubellova (teorija asimilacije). 
  
-===== Ključne riječi i najvažnija imena ===== 
-===== Literatura ===== 
-===== Pročitaj više ===== 
-==== Recentna literatura ==== 
learning_theories/schema_theory.txt · Last modified: 2013/12/10 16:32 by kmikulic