User Tools

Site Tools


learning_theories:social_development_theory

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
learning_theories:social_development_theory [2013/12/10 15:51]
lpopek
learning_theories:social_development_theory [2013/12/11 15:18]
jpetrovic created
Line 1: Line 1:
-====== ​Sociokulturalni model razvoja ​======+====== ​Social Development Theory ​======
  
-===== Općenito ​=====+===== General ​=====
  
-Teoriju socijalnog razvoja uobličio je dvadesetih godina dvadesetog stoljeća ​[[http://​www.marxists.org/​archive/​vygotsky/​|Lev Vygotsky]] ​te je ona po nekima postala temelj ​[[learning_paradigms:​constructivism|socijalnog konstruktivizma]](([[http://​ehlt.flinders.edu.au/​education/​iej/​articles/​v6n3/​liu/​paper.pdf|Liu,​ C. H, and R. Matthews. Vygotsky’s philosophy: Constructivism and its criticisms examined. International Education Journal 6, no. 3: 386–399. 2005.]] +Social development theory was introduced in 1920s by [[http://​www.marxists.org/​archive/​vygotsky/​|Lev Vygotsky]], whose theory is according to some the origin of [[learning_paradigms:​constructivism|social constructivism]](([[http://​ehlt.flinders.edu.au/​education/​iej/​articles/​v6n3/​liu/​paper.pdf|Liu,​ C. H, and R. Matthews. Vygotsky’s philosophy: Constructivism and its criticisms examined. International Education Journal 6, no. 3: 386–399. 2005.]] 
-)). Ova teorijaponekad nazivana ​//kulturno-povijesnom teorijom//, daje  ​**okvir za kognitivni razvoj** djece i iznosi da **ključna uloga u razvoju kognicije** leži u **socijalnim interakcijama**. Kao što je Vygotsky ​sam rekao:+)). This theorysometimes also called ​//cultural-history theory// gives a **framework for cognitive development** in children and argues that the **key role in cognition development** lies in **social interactions**. In Vygotsky's own words,
  
-  * "//svaka se funkcija (događaj) u djetetovu kulturnom razvoju dogodi dva putaprvi putana socijalnoj razinii kasnijena individualnoj raziniprvi puta između ljudi (interpsihičkii kasnije unutar djeteta ​(intrapsihički). Ovaj koncept može se primijeniti na voljnu pažnjulogičku memoriju i na stvaranje koncepataSve funkcije na višoj razini potječu od stvaranja veza između pojedinaca//"​(([[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=RxjjUefze_oC|Vygotsky,​ L.S. Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1978.]])).+  * "//every function in the child'​s cultural development appears twicefirston the social leveland lateron the individual levelfirst, between people ​(interpsychologicaland then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memoryand to the formation of conceptsAll the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals//"​(([[http://​books.google.com/​books?​id=RxjjUefze_oC|Vygotsky,​ L.S. Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1978.]])).
  
  
-===== Što je sociokulturalni model razvoja? =====+===== What is social development theory? =====
  
-Početne Vygotskove ideje pod utjecajem su [[http://​www.ivanpavlov.com/​|Ivana Pavlova]] [[learning_paradigms:​behaviorism|biheviorističkog učenja odgovora na podražaj]]. Te početne ideje kasnije su rezultirale njegovom teorijom socijalnog učenja. Ova teorija oslanja se na tri temeljne postavke ​(([[http://​www.learning-theories.com/​vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html|Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning Theories.]])):​+Vygotsky'​s initial ideas on education and learning were influenced by [[http://​www.ivanpavlov.com/​|Ivan Pavlov]] and [[learning_paradigms:​behaviorism|behaviorist stimulus-response learning]], yet these ideas later changed resulting in his social development theoryThis theory addresses three main themes(([[http://​www.learning-theories.com/​vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html|Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning Theories.]])):​
  
 [[http://​www.abacon.com/​slavin/​t14.html|{{ ​ :​images:​vygotsky.gif?​400x400|Vygotsky'​s theory of social development. Image borrowed from: http://​www.abacon.com/​slavin/​t14.html. Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]] [[http://​www.abacon.com/​slavin/​t14.html|{{ ​ :​images:​vygotsky.gif?​400x400|Vygotsky'​s theory of social development. Image borrowed from: http://​www.abacon.com/​slavin/​t14.html. Click on the picture to follow the link.}}]]
  
-  * **Socijalna interakcija** - prema Vygotskom zajedno sa jezikom i socijalnim ulogama igra  **glavnu ulogu u procesu kognitivnog razvoja**. Suprotno kasnijoj [[hr:​learning_theories:​teoriji ​ kognitivnog razvoja po stupnjevima]] ​[[http://​www.piaget.org/​aboutPiaget.html|Jeana Piageta]], gdje razvoj prethodi učenju, Vygotsky ​je zauzeo stajalište da učenje prethodi razvojuU njegovoj teoriji um nije predstavljen kao nezavisan od socijalnog i kulturalnog kontekstaSocijalna interakcija ovdje znači ​ da će kompetentan član nekog društva ​//eksterno// naučene procese ​//internalizirati// i njima podučiti manje kompetentne članove društva+  * **Social interaction** - which according to Vygotsky together with language and  culture plays a **crucial role in the process of cognitive development**. Opposed to later [[http://​www.piaget.org/​aboutPiaget.html|Jean Piaget]]’s [[learning_theories:​stage theory of cognitive development]] where development precedes learning, Vygotsky ​believed that learning precedes developmentIn Vygotsky'​s theory mind is not seen as autonomous fromsocial and cultural contextSocial interaction here means that a more competent member of the culture will //externalize// learned processes which will then be //internalized// and thereby learned by a less competent member
-  * **Posrednik u učenju** (PUU) - termin koji se odnosi na **osobu** (npr. učitelj ili instruktorili stroj koji u odnosu na učenika ima **više znanja i vještina u nekom zadatku**, procesu ili konceptuTa osoba može pomoći djetetu da nauči nove zadatke i koncepteali sve dok ti zadaci i koncepti ne nadilaze granicu približnog razvoja+  * **The More Knowledgeable Other** (MKO) - a term that addresses a **person** (typically teacher or instructor, but others as wellor a machine that, when compared to the learner, has **more knowledge and skills related to a particular task**, process or conceptThis person can help a child to learn new concepts and tasksbut only as long as those tasks and concepts don't exceed the zone of proximal development
-  * **Područje približnog razvoja** (PPR) - termin koji opisuje ​//područje// **između** učenikove mogućnosti da **izvrši zadatak uz vodstvo** ili suradništvo i mogućnošću da ga **izvrši sam**. PPR je '​mjesto' ​ gdje se učenje događaMotivacija (za ulaženje u PPR) leži u opažanju da će dijete često moći završiti uz pomoć ostalih one zadatke koje ne može završiti sam. **Područje približnog razvoja** je razlika  ​**između djetetovog sadašnjeg razvjnog nivoa i njegovog potencijalnog razvojnog nivoa**, gdje će njegov kognitivni razvoj doseći vrh kroz socijalne interakcijePrema Vygotskom dvoje djece može biti na istom razvojnom nivouali kada jedno od njih dobiva primjereniju pomoć odraslihono će moći riješiti više problema nego ono drugoOva vrsta izvedbe (tj. izvedbe uz pomoć drugih) je prema Vygotskom mnogo važnija od izvedbe djeteta samogkao i ona  mjerena testom inteligencije.+  * **The Zone of Proximal Development** (ZPD) - a term to describe the //zone// **between** learners ability to **complete a task with guidance** or collaboration and ability to **solve it alone**. The ZPD is where learning occursMotivation for introduction of ZPD lies in observation that children could often accomplish tasks with the help of others that they could not accomplish aloneThe **zone of proximal development** is the difference ​**between a child'​s current level of development and his or her potential level of development**, where full cognitive development is achieved through social interactionAccording to Vygotskytwo children may be at the same level of actual developmentbut given the appropriate help from an adult, one might be able to solve many more problems than the otherThis kind of performance was to Vygotsky much more important than performance of a child alonelike the one measured by intelligence tests
  
-Vygotsky ​je smatrao da su govor i pisanje alati razvijeni iz kulture kako bi posredovali ono što dolazi iz socijalne okolineOvi alati najprije pomažu djeci da iskažu svoje potrebe, a kasnije da razviju misaone vještine na višoj raziniEgocentrični govor(("//​Egocentric speech is a form of speech that is observed typically in young children and involves them using speech without addressing anyone in particular. In the following article we shall learn more about egocentric speech and its many components.//"​ [[http://​www.buzzle.com/​articles/​egocentric-speech.html|Source:​ Buzzle.com.]])) ​je, prema Vygotskom, prijelaz iz socijalnog govora u internalizirane misli+Vygotsky ​believed that speech and writing are tools developed from the culture in order to mediate social environmentThese tools first help children to communicate their needs and later to develop higher order thinking skillsEgocentric speech(("//​Egocentric speech is a form of speech that is observed typically in young children and involves them using speech without addressing anyone in particular. In the following article we shall learn more about egocentric speech and its many components.//"​ [[http://​www.buzzle.com/​articles/​egocentric-speech.html|Source:​ Buzzle.com.]])) ​was according to Vygotsky a transition from social speech to internalized thoughts
-===== Koje je praktično značenje teorije sociokulturalnog razoja? =====+===== What is the practical meaning of social development theory? =====
  
-Prve implikacije Vygotskove teorije dolaze iz naglašene ​**važnosti socijalnih interakcija**. U skladu s time, **interakcija**, suradnja i vršnjačko davanje uputa između učenika trebale bi biti **poticane** tijekom obrazovnog procesa kako bi se poboljšalo učenjeUčitelji bi trebali surađivati s učenicima i pomoći im izgraditi mišljenje te poticati eksternalizaciju+First implication of Vygotsky'​s theory comes from the emphasized ​**importance of social interaction**. In accordance with that, **interaction**, collaboration and peer instruction between learners should be **encouraged** during the educational process, since it will enhance learningTeacher should also collaborate with the learners and help them construct meaning and he should also try to encourage externalization
  
-  * "//učiteljradeći sa školskim djetetom na danom pitanjuobjašnjavainformirapropitujeispravlja i potiče samo dijete da objašnjava.//"​(([[http://​www.amazon.com/​Collected-Works-L-S-Vygotsky-Psycholinguistics/​dp/​030642441X#​reader_030642441X|Vygotsky,​ L. S. The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 1. Problems of general psychology (R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton, Vol. Eds.; N. Minick, Trans.). New York: Plenum, 1987.]] (Originally written or published between 1929 and 1935) ))+  * "//the teacherworking with the school child on a given questionexplainsinformsinquirescorrects, and forces the child himself to explain.//"​(([[http://​www.amazon.com/​Collected-Works-L-S-Vygotsky-Psycholinguistics/​dp/​030642441X#​reader_030642441X|Vygotsky,​ L. S. The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 1. Problems of general psychology (R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton, Vol. Eds.; N. Minick, Trans.). New York: Plenum, 1987.]] (Originally written or published between 1929 and 1935) ))
  
-Učitelj ili bilo koji partner ​u učenju na višem nivou trebao bi biti svjestan razvojnog nivoa svog partnera.+The teacher or any higher-level partner in the educational process should always be aware of the development level of his partner.
  
-Drugi učinkovit oblik učenja jest **//podizanje skela//** - osiguravanje ​**pomoći** učeniku kad kod i **koliko god treba**.+Another effective form of teaching is **//scaffolding//** - providing learner with **help** when and as much **as needed**.
  
  
  
-===== Kritike ​=====+===== Criticisms ​=====
  
-Kritike Vygotskyeve teorije naglašavaju da:+Criticisms of Vygotsky'​s theory usually emphasize that:
  
-  * ona ne uzima u obzir **spolne razlike**, +  * it doesn'​t take into consideration ​**gender differences**, 
-  * podcjenjuje mogućnosti i zanemaruje osobnu ulogu u učenju+  * underestimates abilities and ignores role of an individual
-  * ne bavi se problematikom načina na koji vanjski svijet postaje dio  uma+  * does not address the issue of how outer world is brifget to internal mind
-  * vrijednost ​ uratka koji djeca zajedno postignu može dovesti do toga da djeca **postanu lijena** i očekuju pomoć čak i kada nešto mogu postići sama.(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=T654lHlKwzIC|Santrock,​ John W. Child development. McGraw-Hill,​ 2003.]])) +  * valuing performance children accomplish together may result in children ​**becoming lazy** and expecting help even when they can accomplish something on their own.(([[http://​books.google.hr/​books?​id=T654lHlKwzIC|Santrock,​ John W. Child development. McGraw-Hill,​ 2003.]])) 
-===== Ključne riječi i važna imena =====+===== Keywords and most important names =====
  
  
  
-===== Bibliografija ​=====+===== Bibliography ​=====
  
 [[http://​www.scribd.com/​doc/​41760294/​Educational-Psychology-a-Century-of-Contributions|Zimmerman,​ Barry J., and Dale H. Schunk. Educational psychology: a century of contributions. Routledge, 2003.]] [[http://​www.scribd.com/​doc/​41760294/​Educational-Psychology-a-Century-of-Contributions|Zimmerman,​ Barry J., and Dale H. Schunk. Educational psychology: a century of contributions. Routledge, 2003.]]
Line 58: Line 58:
  
  
-===== Pročitajte više =====+===== Read more =====
  
 [[http://​www.marxists.org/​archive/​vygotsky/​works/​crisis/​|Vygotsky,​ L. S. The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology: A Methodological Investigation. Plenum Press, 1987.]] [[http://​www.marxists.org/​archive/​vygotsky/​works/​crisis/​|Vygotsky,​ L. S. The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology: A Methodological Investigation. Plenum Press, 1987.]]
learning_theories/social_development_theory.txt · Last modified: 2013/12/11 15:18 by jpetrovic