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memory_models:a_brief_history_of_human_memory_systems [2015/05/09 14:34]
ivahtaric
memory_models:a_brief_history_of_human_memory_systems [2015/05/12 13:51] (current)
jpetrovic
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 Another issue discussed during 1960s was weather human memory system has one or two components. Some authors like **[[http://​books.nap.edu/​html/​biomems/​amelton.pdf|Arthur ]]** **[[http://​books.nap.edu/​html/​biomems/​amelton.pdf|Melton]]** (([[http://​www.dtic.mil/​cgi-bin/​GetTRDoc?​AD=AD0422425&​Location=U2&​doc=GetTRDoc.pdf|Melton,​ Arthur W. Implication of short-term memory for a general theory of memory, October 1963.]])) ​ argued that both short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) are just two subcomponents dependent on the same system. He justified his views by proofs of activation of the LTM in STM experiments. His work was very influential,​ yet during the years more and more evidence of at least two separate memory systems have accumulated. Another issue discussed during 1960s was weather human memory system has one or two components. Some authors like **[[http://​books.nap.edu/​html/​biomems/​amelton.pdf|Arthur ]]** **[[http://​books.nap.edu/​html/​biomems/​amelton.pdf|Melton]]** (([[http://​www.dtic.mil/​cgi-bin/​GetTRDoc?​AD=AD0422425&​Location=U2&​doc=GetTRDoc.pdf|Melton,​ Arthur W. Implication of short-term memory for a general theory of memory, October 1963.]])) ​ argued that both short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) are just two subcomponents dependent on the same system. He justified his views by proofs of activation of the LTM in STM experiments. His work was very influential,​ yet during the years more and more evidence of at least two separate memory systems have accumulated.
  
-[[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Memory|{{ ​ :​images:​multistore_model.png?​nolink&​}}]]The first more influential two component memory model was introduced in **1968** ​ by **[[http://​www.ucop.edu/​pres/​atkbio.html|Richard Atkinson]]** and **[[http://​www.cogs.indiana.edu/​people/​homepages/​shiffrin.html|Richard ​]]** **[[http://​www.cogs.indiana.edu/​people/​homepages/​shiffrin.html|Shiffrin]]** (([[http://​www.rca.ucsd.edu/​selected_papers/​2_Human memory_A proposed system and its control processes.pdf|Atkinson,​ R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W.; Spence, J.T. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press. pp. 89–195. 1968.]])) . Their model called //​Multi-store model// ​ consisted of long-term and working or short-term memory model and was later improved by an additional component, the **//sensory memory//**. Sensory memory contains one register for each sense and serves as an short lasting buffer-zone before the information can enter short-term memory. Short-term memory is a temporal storage for new information before it enters long-term memory, but is also used for cognitive tasks, understanding and learning.+[[http://​en.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Memory|{{ ​ :​images:​multistore_model.png?​nolink&​}}]]The first more influential two component memory model was introduced in **1968** ​ by **[[http://​www.ucop.edu/​pres/​atkbio.html|Richard Atkinson]]** and **[[http://​www.cogs.indiana.edu/​people/​homepages/​shiffrin.html|Richard ​Shiffrni ​]]**(([[http://​www.rca.ucsd.edu/​selected_papers/​2_Human memory_A proposed system and its control processes.pdf|Atkinson,​ R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W.; Spence, J.T. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press. pp. 89–195. 1968.]])) . Their model called //​Multi-store model// ​ consisted of long-term and working or short-term memory model and was later improved by an additional component, the **//sensory memory//**. Sensory memory contains one register for each sense and serves as an short lasting buffer-zone before the information can enter short-term memory. Short-term memory is a temporal storage for new information before it enters long-term memory, but is also used for cognitive tasks, understanding and learning.
  
-The thesis of two separate memory systems: the **long-term memory** ​ and the **short-term memory** ​ is today considered to be true. This thesis is supported by differences in((10)  _FCKG_BLANK_TD_ ​[[http://​web.missouri.edu/​~cowann/​documents/​Cowan2008progressinbrainresearchSTMLTM.pdf|Cowan,​ N. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Progress in brain research 169: 323-338. 2008.]])) ​ ((11)  _FCKG_BLANK_TD_  ​[[http://​www.simplypsychology.org/​memory.html|Mcleod,​ Saul. Memory Psychology. Simply Psychology, 2007.]])) :+The thesis of two separate memory systems: the **long-term memory** ​ and the **short-term memory** ​ is today considered to be true. This thesis is supported by differences in(([[http://​web.missouri.edu/​~cowann/​documents/​Cowan2008progressinbrainresearchSTMLTM.pdf|Cowan,​ N. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Progress in brain research 169: 323-338. 2008.]])) ​ (([[http://​www.simplypsychology.org/​memory.html|Mcleod,​ Saul. Memory Psychology. Simply Psychology, 2007.]])) :
  
   * **capacity** ​ (small for STM and large or unlimited for LTM),   * **capacity** ​ (small for STM and large or unlimited for LTM),
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   * **time to acquire information** ​ (short for STM and longer for LTM),   * **time to acquire information** ​ (short for STM and longer for LTM),
   * **information encoding** ​ (semantic for LTM and acoustic or visual for STM), and   * **information encoding** ​ (semantic for LTM and acoustic or visual for STM), and
-  * type of memory affected by physical injuries in patients((12)  ​See: Milner, B. Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobes. In C.W.M. Whitty & O. L. Zangwill (eds), Amnesia. London: Butterworth,​ 1966. (damage of LTM without damaging STM), and  [[http://​www.tandfonline.com/​doi/​abs/​10.1080/​00335557043000203|Shallice,​ T. & Warrington, E.K. Independent functioning of verbal memory stores: a neuropsychological study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 22, 261–273. 1970.]] (damaged STM with fully functioning LTM), cited by  [[http://​gen.lib.rus.ec/​get?​md5=00b2fd0fb59c5de5704bb86e70a6871a|Baddeley,​ Alan D. The Psychology of Memory. In Michael D. Kopelman, and Barbara A. Wilson. The Handbook of Memory Disorders. 2nd ed. Wiley, 2002.]])) .+  * type of memory affected by physical injuries in patients((See:​ Milner, B. Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobes. In C.W.M. Whitty & O. L. Zangwill (eds), Amnesia. London: Butterworth,​ 1966. (damage of LTM without damaging STM), and  [[http://​www.tandfonline.com/​doi/​abs/​10.1080/​00335557043000203|Shallice,​ T. & Warrington, E.K. Independent functioning of verbal memory stores: a neuropsychological study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 22, 261–273. 1970.]] (damaged STM with fully functioning LTM), cited by  [[http://​gen.lib.rus.ec/​get?​md5=00b2fd0fb59c5de5704bb86e70a6871a|Baddeley,​ Alan D. The Psychology of Memory. In Michael D. Kopelman, and Barbara A. Wilson. The Handbook of Memory Disorders. 2nd ed. Wiley, 2002.]])) .
  
 Another term should be clarified here: the [[:​memory_models:​human_working_memory|working memory]], which is often mistaken for the short-term memory. The main difference between these two is that working memory usually includes the structure and processes performed by a system in control of the short-term memory. Another term should be clarified here: the [[:​memory_models:​human_working_memory|working memory]], which is often mistaken for the short-term memory. The main difference between these two is that working memory usually includes the structure and processes performed by a system in control of the short-term memory.
memory_models/a_brief_history_of_human_memory_systems.txt · Last modified: 2015/05/12 13:51 by jpetrovic