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Biheviorism Cognitivism Humanism Constructivism Connectivism
Time line: Since 1900s Since 1960s Since 1960s Since 1970s Since 2000s
What is learning: Development of desired behavior Acquisition of new knowledge and developing adequate mental constructions A mean which should help learner in self-actualization and development of personal potentials Construction of new knowledge Process of connection-forming
Control locus: Environment Learner Learner Learner Mostly learner but also environment
Learner role: Passive, simply responding to external stimuli Active and central to the process, he learns objective knowledge from external world Active and discovery Active, constructing his representation of knowledge using preferred learning styles Knowledge acquisition in form of establishing connections to other nodes
Learning process: External supporting of desired or punishing of undesired behavior An active process of acquiring and processing new information using prior knowledge and experience Active learning through experience Construction of subjective representation of knowledge based on prior knowledge and experience Learning can also reside outside a person (within a database or an organization) and is focused on establishing connections
Critics: Ignores learner and his mental processes, depends exclusively on overt behavior Views knowledge as objective and external to the learner More psychologically then experimentally grounded approach based on assumptions of free will and a system of human values which are generally believed to be true, yet sometimes discredited through counterexamples There is little evidence for some constructivist views, and some even contradict known findings A relatively new and according to some not fully developed theory
Key authors: Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949), Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936), Edwin Guthrie (1886 - 1959), Edward Tolman (1886 - 1959), Clark Hull (1884 – 1952), Burrhus Skinner (1904 - 1990), William Estes (1919 - ) Max Wertheimer (1880 – 1943), David Ausubel (1918 - 2008), Albert Bandura (1925 - ), Robert Gagné (1916 - 2002), Richard Anderson (1934 - ), Roger Schank, John Sweller, Richard Mayer, Edgar Dale (1900 – 1985), Charles Reigeluth, Joseph Novak, Dave Merrill, Dave Merrill, Joseph Scandura David Kolb (1939 - ), Jack Mezirow , Carl Rogers (1902 - 1987), William Purkey (1929 - ), John Holt, Malcolm Knowles, Paulo Freire John Dewey, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934), Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980), Jean Lave , Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger, Allan Collins, Jerome Bruner (1915 - ) George Simens, Stephen Downes
learning_paradigms/paradigm_comparison.txt · Last modified: 2023/06/19 18:03 (external edit)