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learning_theories:drive_reduction_theory [2013/09/30 17:16]
jpetrovic [What is the practical meaning of drive reduction theory?]
learning_theories:drive_reduction_theory [2013/09/30 17:19]
jpetrovic [What is drive reduction theory?]
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 ===== General ===== ===== General =====
  
-Drive reduction theory was introduced in 1930s by an eminent American psychologist [[http://​www.newworldencyclopedia.org/​entry/​Clark_L._Hull|Clark Hull]], whose works were **influenced by other behaviorists** like [[http://​www.ivanpavlov.com/​|Ivan Pavlov]], [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​thorndike.htm|Edward Thorndike]] and [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​tolman.htm|Edward Tolman]], but also by [[http://​hr.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Charles_Darwin|Charles Darwin]]'​s theory of evolution.(([[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​behaviorism/​clarkhull.html|Cooper,​ S. Clark Hull Drive Reduction Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology.]])) Hull's theory was at the time very influential. As a general learning theory it tried to explain **all behavior** and the likelihood of its appearance mathematically using a **set of formula**. Another area of Hull's interest was hypnosis research. He conducted a number of laboratory experiments in which he finally showed that hypnosis and sleep are two completely separate states.(([[http://​books.google.hr/books?​id=6eK_bwAACAAJ|Hull, Clark H. Hypnosis and Suggestibility:​ An Experimental Approach. Carmarthen, Wales: Crown House Publishing. 1933.]]))+Drive reduction theory was introduced in 1930s by an eminent American psychologist [[http://​www.newworldencyclopedia.org/​entry/​Clark_L._Hull|Clark Hull]], whose works were **influenced by other behaviorists** like [[http://​www.ivanpavlov.com/​|Ivan Pavlov]], [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​thorndike.htm|Edward Thorndike]] and [[http://​www.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​tolman.htm|Edward Tolman]], but also by [[http://​hr.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Charles_Darwin|Charles Darwin]]'​s theory of evolution.(([[http://​www.lifecircles-inc.com/​Learningtheories/​behaviorism/​clarkhull.html|Cooper,​ S. Clark Hull Drive Reduction Theory. Theories of Learning in Educational Psychology.]])) Hull's theory was at the time very influential. As a general learning theory it tried to explain **all behavior** and the likelihood of its appearance mathematically using a **set of formula**. Another area of Hull's interest was hypnosis research. He conducted a number of laboratory experiments in which he finally showed that hypnosis and sleep are two completely separate states.(([[http://​www.tandfonline.com/doi/​abs/​10.1080/​00029157.2004.10403608|Hull, Clark H. Hypnosis and Suggestibility:​ An Experimental Approach. Carmarthen, Wales: Crown House Publishing. 1933.]]))
  
  
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 Hull's theory was mostly orientated on S-R relationship and reinforcement. If a S-R relationship is followed by a reduction of the drive, the probability of same prior response on similar situations in the future increases. S-R relationship (**//habit strength//​**) becomes stronger through the number of **reinforcements**. Biological needs were according to Hull //primary drives//, but he also believed there are //secondary drives// (learned drives), which refer to situations associated with reduction of primary drives. That means a neutral stimulus can have primary drive characteristics,​ because it is capable of eliciting responses similar to those caused by primary drive. ​ Hull's theory was mostly orientated on S-R relationship and reinforcement. If a S-R relationship is followed by a reduction of the drive, the probability of same prior response on similar situations in the future increases. S-R relationship (**//habit strength//​**) becomes stronger through the number of **reinforcements**. Biological needs were according to Hull //primary drives//, but he also believed there are //secondary drives// (learned drives), which refer to situations associated with reduction of primary drives. That means a neutral stimulus can have primary drive characteristics,​ because it is capable of eliciting responses similar to those caused by primary drive. ​
  
-In order to offer a full, scientific explanation of learning, Hull developed a **formula**((Formula was retrieved from [[http://​fates.cns.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​hull.htm|Schrock,​ J. Psychology History: Clark Hull]], but different forms of the formula appear in defferent sources like [[http://​webspace.ship.edu/​cgboer/​beh.html|Boeree,​ G. Behaviorism]] or [[http://​www.psywww.com/​intropsych/​ch09_motivation/​hulls_theory.html|Dewey,​ R. Hull's Theory.]])) in which he tried to mathematically explain and **predict a likelihood of behavior**. This formula measures **habit strength** defined as the strength of the S-R bond. This bond represents learning. Hull's equation claims:+In order to offer a full, scientific explanation of learning, Hull developed a **formula**((Formula was retrieved from [[http://​fates.cns.muskingum.edu/​~psych/​psycweb/​history/​hull.htm|Schrock,​ J. Psychology History: Clark Hull]] ​(link obsolete), but different forms of the formula appear in defferent sources like [[http://​webspace.ship.edu/​cgboer/​beh.html|Boeree,​ G. Behaviorism]] or [[http://​www.psywww.com/​intropsych/​ch09_motivation/​hulls_theory.html|Dewey,​ R. Hull's Theory.]])) in which he tried to mathematically explain and **predict a likelihood of behavior**. This formula measures **habit strength** defined as the strength of the S-R bond. This bond represents learning. Hull's equation claims:
  
     sEr = (sHr x D x K x V) - (sIr + Ir) ± sOr     sEr = (sHr x D x K x V) - (sIr + Ir) ± sOr
learning_theories/drive_reduction_theory.txt · Last modified: 2013/09/30 17:19 by jpetrovic