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Types of Knowledge

There is a wide variety of qualities and properties attributed to knowledge in the literature like1):

Various types of knowledge in the literature
generic knowledge general knowledge domain specific knowledge concrete knowledge abstract knowledge formal knowledge informal knowledge inert knowledge
declarative knowledge procedural knowledge elaborated knowledge compiled knowledge structured knowledge unstructured knowledge tacit knowledge ancillary knowledge
strategic knowledge knowledge acquisition knowledge situated knowledge definitional knowledge concept knowledge strategic knowledge supplementary knowledge metaknowledge

The most basic and commonly used division of knowledge types2) differs between procedural and declarative knowledge:

Type Definition
1. Declarative knowledge reffering to knowledge about facts and concepts.
2. Procedural knowledge reffering to knowledge about how to accomplish something.

The taxonomy of knowledge types based on Krathwohl's revised Blooms taxonomy extends declarative knowledge to factual and conceptual aand adds meta-knowledge3):

Type Definition Examples
1. Declarative knowledge Factual knowledge The knowledge of facts or the basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. Knowhedge that a a keyboard is a computer device, that chemical symbol Au represents gold, that this color is called green, that 7 is the symbol for number 7, knowledge of names of three fastest growing trees, knowledge of the definition of the quadratic formula, knowledge that hte capital of Azerbajdan is Baku, knowledge that the U.S. gained independence in 1776.
2. Conceptual knowledge Conceptual knowledge reffers to patterns and interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. Knowledge of categories (concepts) like cars, dogs or rock music. Knowledge about similarities and patterns in factual knowledge elements, for example forms of business ownership.
3. Procedural knowledge How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods. Whole-number division algorithm, greedy algorithm, Held–Karp algorithm, interviewing techniques, differential equation solving techniques, gaze heuristic, similarity heuristic.
4. Metacognitive knowledge Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition4). Knowledge of outlining as a means of capturing the structure of a unit subject matter in a textbook, knowledge of the use of heuristics, knowledge of the types of tests particular teachers administer, knowledge of the cognitive demands of different tasks.
knowledge_assessment/types_if_knowledge.txt · Last modified: 2012/05/15 17:07 by jpetrovic